Corpus uteri cancer (Endometrial cancer) in Saudi ArabiaEndometrial cancer, also known as uterine cancer or corpus uteri cancer, is the tenth most prevalent type of malignancy in Saudi Arabia (Al Asiri et al. 2012; Al Asiri et al. 2014, p. 32). It is also noted that uterine cancer is the second most prevalent type of gynaecologic malignancies reported in women while endometrial carcinoma is the most common histologic form of uterine cancer (Al Asiri et al. 2012; Al Asiri et al. 2014, p. 32). An endometrial carcinoma can be defined as a primary invasive epithelial tumour, usually characterised by glandular differentiation, which arises in the epithelial lining or endometrium of the body of the uterus, that has the capacity to invade into the myometrium and to metastasise into distant parts of the body (Tavassoli & Devilee 2003, p.
221). Obesity is considered a key risk factor for the growth of endometrial carcinoma (Al Asiri et al. 2012; Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) 2012, p. 2). In particular, according to the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (2012, p.
2), excess body weight has been linked with a higher risk of having tumours that are malignant, and endometrial cancer is strongly linked with obesity. Based on this point of view, it can be surmised that the prevalence of endometrial cancer in Saudi Arabia is linked to cases of obesity in the country. To confirm whether this is true or not, there is need to look at the lifestyle of people in the country. Along the same line, Saudi Arabia is one of the countries that are expected to have a high incidence of obesity because of a high sitting time and sedentary lifestyle among individuals, which are associated with a high prevalence of obesity (Al-Hazzaa et al.
2012; Healy 2012, p. 44). Evidence of excess weight and obesity among individuals in Saudi Arabia is noted in various sources of literature. In particular, Al Asiri et al. (2012) note that in Saudi Arabia, cases of having a BMI (body mass index) of over 30 kgm-2 have been noted to be on the rise among both males and females across all age groups with a general incidence of 44 percent in Saudi Arabian women.
Further, results of meta-analysis reported by Al Asiri et al. (2012) indicate that the quantified risk of uterine cancer is 1.59 for each 5kgm-2 rise in BMI, using a 95 percent confidence interval (CI) (95 percent CI: 1.50 to 1.68). Obesity also is indicated to be predominantly linked with type 1 endometrial cancers (referred to as endometroid cancers) as opposed to type 2 endometrial cancers (the non-endometroid types such as carcinosarcoma or serous endometrial cancers) (RCOG 2012, p. 2).
Even then, obesity increases the risk of both subtypes of endometrial cancer. Moreover, it has been noted that women are particularly at a higher risk of having uterine cancer when their BMI exceeds 30 kgm-2, and the risk increases linearly with an increase in BMI (RCOG 2012, p. 2). Incidence rate of uterine cancer cases in Saudi ArabiaThe occurrence rate of endometrial cancer cases in Saudi Arabia can be analysed by looking at studies that have been conducted in the country in recent times. One such study is the study that was conducted by Alghamdi et al.
(2014). Alghamdi et al. (2014) carried out a study that reviewed the epidemiological information on uterine cancer in the Saudi female population. The study focused on the frequency of the disease, its CIR (crude incidence rate), and ASIR (age-standardised incidence rate), modified by region as well as the year when the disease was diagnosed. The methodology of the study was a retrospective and descriptive epidemiological approach that involved analysing all cases of uterine cancer that were reported in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR) during the period from 2001 (January) to 2008 (December).
Various methods of statistical analysis were used to analyse the data, including analysis of variance, descriptive statistics, simple linear modelling and Poisson regression (Alghamdi et al. 2014, p. 141).