The paper "The Potential of Hydrogen Fueled Vehicle in Agriculture" is an outstanding example of a thesis on engineering and construction. The energy demand is rising at a rapid rate. As per, the World Energy Technology and Climate Policy Outlook predicted a standard development rate of 1.8% for every annum for the years 2000-2030. 65% of energy demand is met fundamentally by non-renewable energy sources. The utilization of these cause releases of different pollutions and greenhouse gasses. By 2030, greenhouse gasses discharge from developing countries could represent the greater part the world CO2 releases (European Commission 2003).
Discharges of these gasses will bring about a rise in the Earth's temperature that will bring about a permanent environmental change. A large portion of the energy created in Australia depends mostly on the regular energy sources known as the fuels of fossils. Oil was the biggest source of energy in Australia having around 38% of the aggregate fuel utilization from the years 2013-14. Moreover, the major sources at present, to fulfill the world’ s energy demand, are mostly the fossils, which will be exhausted quickly.
Non-renewable energy source assets are currently less and their costs have turned out to be unbalanced each passing day. That is because of, first economic rise generally in India and China, and second, by financial recession. In the search for energy security, the difficulties of controlling costs and the unverifiable stores are the hard incentives to achieve (Abbasi and Abbasi, 2011). Significant ecological and societal issues, for example, a worldwide temperature variation and neighborhood contamination are specifically connected with the use of non-renewable energy sources. Such issues clearly motivate the investigation, progression, and revelation of pure energy resources, energy bearers, and on account of energy trains and transportation. Energy demand in agriculture In agriculture, a great deal of energy is consumed.
A large portion of this fuel originates from nonrenewable bases. At present, every one of the tractors accessible keeps running on oil-based commodities mostly diesel, and oil. Critical research has been done in the past to reduce our reliance on oil-based supplies. A few alternatives like biodiesel, biogas, and so forth have been found. In any case, they are unacceptable because of a few issues identified with their utilization like impurity, lesser oil, changes required in the fuel plan, and so on.
Thus, a plain energy procedure is required, inclining to both energy free market activity, assessing the entire energy life-cycle including fuel creation, transmission and dispersion, and energy transformation, and the effect on energy gear makers and the end-clients of energy frameworks (Fayaz et al. , 2012). For the time being, the argument is to accomplish higher energy productivity and expanded supply from European energy sources, specifically renewables. In the long haul, a hydrogen-based economy will affect every one of these segments.
From the perspective of innovative improvements, vehicle and fragment producers, transport suppliers, the energy business, and even households are genuinely taking a glance at alternative energy sources and more effective techniques and cleaner advancements – particularly hydrogen and hydrogen-controlled energy components. Hydrogen is a promising contrasting alternative to oil-based commodities as it can be created from a few sources including fossil, atomic, biomass, water, and so forth.
Abbasi, T, Abbasi, S.A. (2011). Renewable’hydrogen: prospects and challenges. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15(6), 3034–40.
Barbir, F. (2004). PEM electrolysis for production of hydrogen from renewable energy sources. Solar Energy 78 (5), 661-669. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/0038092X.
Bekkeheien, M., Øystein, H., Klovening, R. & Stokholm, R. (1999). Energy demand patterns towards 2050. In OECD. Energy: the next fifty years. Paris: OECD. 95-120.
Biggs, L. & Giles, D. (2009). Current and future agricultural practices and technologies which affect fuel efficiency. Intelligent Energy Europe.
Borén, S., Nurhadi, L., Ny, H., Robèrt, K. H., Broman, G., & Trygg, L. (2017). A strategic approach to sustainable transport system development–Part 2: the case of a vision for electric vehicle systems in southeast Sweden. Journal of Cleaner Production, 140, 62-71.
Bowes, D. (2014). Experimental Tractors–Tractor technology appears to have nearly hit its pinnacle of development, Yesterday's Tractor Co., http://www.yesterdaystractors.com/articles/artint207.htm.
Caterpillar. (2012). CAT D7E With Electric Drive. [On-line] Caterpillar. Available from: http://www.cat.com/D7E.
Chalk. S.G. & Miller, J.F. (2006). Key challenges and recent progress in batteries, fuel cells, and hydrogen storage for clean energy systems. Journal of Power Sources 159 (1), 73-80.
Clean Cities. (2008). Biodiesel Blends. [On-line]. US Department of Energy. Available from: http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy05osti/37136.pdf.
Colella, W. G., Jacobson, M. Z., & Golden, D. M. (2005). Switching to a US hydrogen fuel cell vehicle fleet: The resultant change in emissions, energy use, and greenhouse gases. Journal of Power Sources, 150, 150-181.
Dutzik, T. (2004). Making Sense of Hydrogen The Potential Role of Hydrogen in Achieving a Clean, Sustainable Transportation System. UK: Routledge.
EG&G Technical Services, Inc. (2004). Fuel cell handbook. 7th ed. U.S. Departement of Energy: Office of Fossil Energy. Retrieved from http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/coalpower/fuelcells/seca/pubs/FCHandbook7.pdf.
El Bassam, N. & Maegard, P. (2004). Integrated renewable energy for rural communities: planning guidelines, technologies, and applications. Boston (MA): Elsevier.
European Commission. (2003). Hydrogen Energy and Fuel Cells: A vision of our future. EUR 20719.
Fayaz, H. Saidur, R., Razali, N., Anuar, F. S. Saleman, A. R., Islam, M. R. (2012). An overview of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 5511–5528.
Forrai, A. Funato, H. Yanagita, Y. & Kato, Y. (2005). Fuel-Cell Parameter Estimation and Diagnostics. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion 20 (3), 668- 675.
Fuel Cells 2000 & US Fuel Cell Council. (2007). Fuel Cell Vehicles (from auto manufacturers). Retrieved from http://www.fuelcells.org/info/charts/carchart.pdf.
Gottesfeld, S. (2004). The polymer electrolyte fuel cell: materials issues in a hydrogen fuelled power source. LANL. Retrieved from http://education.lanl.gov.
History Wired: a few of our favorite things. (2006). Allis-Chalmers Fuel-Cell Tractor. National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved from http://historywired.si.edu/object.cfm?ID=223.
Hottinen, T. (2003). Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. In Hydrogen and fuel cell technology: lectures in Autumn 2003. Otaniemi: Helsinki University of Technology.
Hoy, R., Rohrer, R., Liska, A., & Luck, J. (2014). Agricultural Industry Advanced Vehicle Technology: Benchmark Study for Reduction in Petroleum Use. U.S. Department of Energy.
Husain, I. (2003). Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Design Fundamentals. New York: CRC press.
Hwang, J. J. (2013). Sustainability study of hydrogen pathways for fuel cell vehicle applications. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 19, 220-229.
Kawai, T. (2004). Fuel cell hybrid vehicles: the challenge for the future. In Sperling, D. & and Cannon, J.S. (Ed.) The hydrogen energy transition: moving toward the post petroleum age in transportation. Amsterdam: Elsevier, cop. 59-71.
Kivisaari, J. (2003). Vedyn valmistusmenetelmiä. In Hydrogen and fuel cell technology: lectures in Autumn. Otaniemi: Helsinki University of Technology.
Kolhe, M. (2004). The Energy of the Future – Hydrogen. Course KEM501: lecture material. Master´s Degree Programme in Renewable Energy, University of Jyväskylä.
Kordesch, K., Gsellmann,J., Cifrain, M., Voss, S., Hacker, V., Aronson, R.R., Fabjan, C., Hejze, T. & Daniel-Ivad, J. (1999). Intermittent use of a low-cost alkaline fuel cell-hybrid system for electric vehicles. Journal of Power Sources 80 (1-2), 190-197. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03787753.
Larminie, J. & Dicks, A. (2003). Fuel cell systems explained. 2nd ed. Chichester: Wiley, cop.
Lee, W.S., Alchanatis, V., Yang, C., Hirafuji, M., Moshou, D. & Li, C. (2010). Sensing technologies for precision speciality crop production. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. 74. 2-33.
Lin, B.Y.S., Kirk, D.W & Thorpe, S.J. (2006). Performance of alkaline fuel cells: a possible future energy system? Journal of Power Sources 161 (1), 474-483. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03787753.
Marbán, G., & Valdés-Solís, T. (2007). Towards the hydrogen economy?. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 32(12), 1625-1637.
Mattila L., Saastamoinen J., Helynen S., Hämäläinen J., Mäkinen T., Lohiniva E., McKeough P., Wolff J., Nordman H., Tuunanen J., Sipilä K. & Tuhkanen S. (2001). Energy production technologies. In Kara, M., Hirvonen, R., Mattila, L., Viinikainen, S., Tuhkanen, S. & Lind, I. (Ed.) Energy visions 2030 for Finland. 3rd ed. Helsinki: Edita. VTT Energy. 67-124.
McCormick, R. L. & Parish, R. (2001). Technical barriers to the use of ethanol in diesel fuel, milestone report to NREL/MP-540-32674.
Mousazadeh, H., Keyhani, A., Javadi, A., Mobli, H., Abrinia, K. & Sharifi, A. (2011). Life-cycle assessment of a Solar Assist Plug-in Hybrid electric Tractor (SAPHT) in comparison with a conventional tractor. Energy Conversion and Management. 52. 1700-1710.
National Hydrogen Association. (2007). The history of hydrogen. Retrieved from http:// http://www.hydrogenassociation.org/general/factSheet_history.pdf.
Noponen, M. (2003a). Transport phenomena in fuel cells: Part I. In Hydrogen and fuel cell technology: lectures in Autumn 2003. Otaniemi: Helsinki University of TechnologyNoponen, M. 2003a. Transport phenomena in fuel cells: Part I. In Hydrogen and fuel cell technology: lectures in Autumn 2003. Otaniemi: Helsinki University of Technology.
Oi, T. & Wada, K. (2003). Feasibility study on hydrogen refueling infrastructure for fuel cell vehicles using the off-peak power in Japan. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 29 (4), 347-354. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03603199.
Pacala, S., & Socolow, R. (2004). Stabilization wedges: solving the climate problem for the next 50 years with current technologies. science, 305(5686), 968-972.
Pathapati, P.R., Xue, X. & Tang, J. (2004). A new dynamic model for predicting transient phenomena in a PEM fuel cell system. Renewable Energy 30 (1), 1-22.
Pathapati, P.R., Xue, X. & Tang, J. 2004. A new dynamic model for predicting transient phenomena in a PEM fuel cell system. Renewable Energy 30 (1), 1-22. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09601481.
Science Service. (2007). Controller regulates fuel cell tractor. National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved from http://scienceservice.si.edu/pages/059026.htm.
Telmo, C. & Lousada, J. (2011). Heating values of wood pellets from different species. Biomass and Energy. 35. 2634-2639.
Tompkins, B.T., Song, H., Bittle, J.A. & Jacobs, T.J. (2012). Efficiency considerations for the use of blended biofuel in diesel engines. Applied Energy. (Unpublished).
Varuvel, E.G., Mrad, N., Tazerout, M. and Aloui, F. (2012). Experimental analysis of biofuel as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. Applied Energy. 94. 224-231.
Wang, C., Nehrir, M.H. & Shaw, S.R. (2005). Dynamic models and model validation for PEM fuel cells using electrical circuits. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion 20 (2), 442- 451. Retrieved from http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?isnumber=30892&arnumber=1432859&count= 34&index=24.
Waterland, L. R., S. Venkatesh, & Unnasch, S. (2003). Safety and Performance Assessment of Ethanol/Diesel Blends (E-Diesel), Report to NREL/SR-540-34817.
Winter, C. J. (2009). Hydrogen energy—abundant, efficient, clean: a debate over the energy-system-of-change. International journal of hydrogen energy, 34(14), S1-S52.
ZF. (2012). ZF Technology for Tractors: Robust and Powerful. [On-line]. ZF Friedrichshafen AG. Available from: http://www.zf.com/corporate/de/products/product_range/agricultural_machinery/tractors/tractors.html.