Preeclampsia Diagnosis and Detection using the Urinary Markers – Thesis Proposal Example
Preeclampsia Diagnosis and Detection using the Urinary markers Affiliation Preeclampsia Diagnosis and Detection using the Urinary markers
During the pregnancy period, it is important to determine the blood pressure level for women (Zavalza-Gómez, 2011). In this practice, it has been found that over a tenth of the pregnant women record higher blood pressure than the normal level. Preeclampsia is the most common form of hypertensive disorder during pregnancy that is found to affect 5% of the first time mothers. The research will analyze patients who are confirmed for preeclampsia measure, difference existing between a normal pregnancy and Preeclampsia and the significance of the test (Carty, 2012).
It is important to consider the diagnosis and detection for early management and treatment as it is cited as a major cause of fetal and maternal morbidity as well as mortality worldwide. Only few studies have been able to analyze the process of diagnosis and detection of preeclampsia. Even though there are different tests that can be carried out for early detection, a little knowledge is known about the impact and strength of urinary markers. Podocyturia is highly specific and a sensitive marker for the preeclampsia among pregnant women. (Chaiworapongsa et al.,2002).
The research will recognize the weaknesses and strengths of Urinary markers and how it can be used in the diagnosis and detection of hypertensive. This research will also identify the importance of early pregnancy, urinary markers that would assist in identifying whether a woman is destined in developing Preeclampsia disorder (Chaiworapongsa et al., 2002).
1. What is the significance of podocyturia urine markers for women diagnosed of preeclampsia?
2. What are the differences between pregnancy in a normal woman and one who has Preeclampsia?
Preeclampsia is considered a pregnancy specific disorder in women. It is one of the major causes of mortality, morbidity among maternal and prenatal. Understanding the significance of urine marker test, and differences between a normal woman and Preeclampsia would assist health care professionals in saving life for the mother and the unborn (Manjareeka & Nanda, 2013). Preeclampsia complications occur in 2-8% of all pregnancies across the world that result to over 63,000 maternal deaths annually. The rate in maternal death is higher in developing countries as compared to developed countries.
However, the condition is a life threatening occurrence even in the developed world (Saritas & Moeller, 2014). The complications that are linked with the condition include eclampsia, abruption, cerebral hemorrhage, oedema in the pulmonary, hepatic failure, Haemolysis Elevated Liver enzymes, Low Platelet count and also acute renal failure (Dekker & Sibai, 1991). It is also a major cause of prenatal deaths among the unborn. It is found that women who had an earlier experience of Preeclampsia complications are likely to experience cardiac attack, cerebrovascular, peripheral arterial diseases and also higher cardiovascular mortality. Previous pregnancy with the condition is found to be the major risk factor though it is believed that Preeclampsia has multivariate risk factors (Bolte, van Geijn & Dekker, 2001)..
Population of Study
The study population will involve healthy women as well as women with Preeclampsia complications who were in their 20 week and 38 weeks of pregnancy. The study targeted women with singleton pregnancy for the research. The study will not include women with concurrent diagnosis of the diseases that affect their blood pressure, such as chronic hypertension prior to the pregnancy. Urine samples were collected from these women to determine the changes they experienced during the period (Seini, 2013).
Ethics of Research
The research required approval from the ethics committee in the health center due to human involvement throughout the study. Through this, the women to be involved in this research will be at their will where they will be expected to sign the consent forms (Karacay et al., 2010).
Statistical Analysis of Data
The data and statistics collected will be evaluated using the software called SPSS. It is a statistical tool that determines the trends and comparison in a wide variety of data.
Implication of this Study
The study findings will be crucial in understanding the significance of urine marker test in the diagnosis of preeclampsia. The suggestions in the recommendation section will be crucial in advising patients and medical practitioners in the field of preeclampsia detection, diagnosis and treatment using the Urine marker (Kolialexi, et al., 2015).
Kolialexi, A., Mavreli, D., Tounta, G., Mavrou, A., & Papantoniou, N. (2015). Urine proteomic studies in preeclampsia. PROTEOMICS-Clinical Applications.
Karacay, Ö., Sepici-Dincel, A., Karcaaltincaba, D., Sahin, D., Yalvaç, S., Akyol, M., ... & Altan, N. (2010). A quantitative evaluation of total antioxidant status and oxidative stress markers in preeclampsia and gestational diabetic patients in 24–36 weeks of gestation. Diabetes research and clinical practice, 89(3), 231-238.
Zavalza-Gómez, A. B. (2011). Obesity and oxidative stress: a direct link to preeclampsia?. Archives of gynecology and obstetrics, 283(3), 415-422.
Saritas, T., & Moeller, M. J. (2014). Glomerular disease: Pre-eclampsia, podocyturia and the role of parietal epithelial cells. Nature Reviews Nephrology, 10(11), 615-616.
Seini, M. M. (2013). Maternal Serum Human Chorionic Gonadotropin and Magnesium as Biochemical Markers in Predicting Preeclampsia in Pregrant Ghanaian Women (Doctoral dissertation, University of Ghana).
Manjareeka, M., & Nanda, S. (2013). Elevated levels of serum uric acid, creatinine or urea in preeclamptic women. Int J Med Sci Public Health, 2(1), 43-47.
Bolte, A. C., van Geijn, H. P., & Dekker, G. A. (2001). Management and monitoring of severe preeclampsia. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 96(1), 8-20.
Dekker, G. A., & Sibai, B. M. (1991). Early detection of preeclampsia. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 165(1), 160-172.
Carty, D. M. (2012). Pre-eclampsia: early prediction and long-term consequences (Doctoral dissertation, University of Glasgow).
Chaiworapongsa, T., Romero, R., Yoshimatsu, J., Espinoza, J., Kim, Y. M., Park, K., ... & Gomez, R. (2002). Soluble adhesion molecule profile in normal pregnancy and pre-eclampsia. Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, 12(1), 19-27.