Systemic Lupus Erythematosus - Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Complications, and Treatment – Term Paper Example

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The paper “Systemic Lupus Erythematosus - Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Complications, and Treatment" is a forceful example of a term paper on health sciences & medicine. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus The body usually has in place self-tolerance that serves to ensure that the immune system does not trigger reaction against itself. However, when tolerance fades, systemic lupus erythematosus may occur. This condition is defined by the immune system, triggering antibodies against its own tissues. After the emergence of this condition, the health system plunged into turmoil, because it causes were not evident (Shiel 1). After years of advancing research into the causes, symptoms, and treatment of the disease, the health system seems to have identified a potential solution to managing the fatal condition. This essay will address the defined causes, symptoms, diagnostic methods, complications, treatment, and management of systemic lupus erythematosus.
Causes
Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune system that places the body at great risk. As is common in other autoimmune diseases, the immune system triggers a response against its own tissues and organs. The immune cells released often attack different body organs such as joints, skin, kidney, and nervous system. Research has also revealed that autoimmunity results from certain genetic factors that increase susceptibility. In addition, allergies resulting from some drugs also contribute to the development of autoimmunity. There is evidence suggesting that the condition registers a higher prevalence in people of the African and Asia descent. Additional research has highlighted a higher frequency in women (Ferenkeh-Koroma 50).

Symptoms
Fever
Fatigue
Blood clots
Hair loss
Heartburn
Stomach pain
Weight loss
Poor circulation to toes and fingers
Arthritis
Rashes
Inflammation of the lungs and heart
Kidney problems
Neurologic problems
Abnormal blood tests

Diagnosis
In the past, diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus was difficult because of the limited understanding of its causes. Moreover, as highlighted above, many of the symptoms are evident in a diverse range of diseases, a fact that contributed to inaccurate diagnosis. Many people suffered without a definitive determination of the real cause of the symptoms. However, with an increased understanding of the causes, the diagnosis has become a possibility. Evidently, several tests are critical before the specific determination of the disease. Some of the tests include ANA analysis that serves to confirm the presence of the different categories of antibodies. Researchers have a specific interest in the antiphospholipid antibodies that ascertains the presence of systemic lupus erythematous (Kiriakidou 2).

Treatment
There are different treatment interventions depending on the evident symptoms. As highlighted above, this autoimmune disease presents a diverse range of symptoms (Krucik 1). One of the interventions of treating this disease is the use of conservative drugs for cases identified as less serious. Some of the drugs identified as conservative include:
Nonsteroidal drugs
Anti-inflammatory drugs
Antimalarial drugs,
Corticosteroids

However, serious symptoms call for combined forms of treatment that may involve combinations of the above. It is critical for patients to discuss the different forms of treatment with their patients (Malinvaud 498). Health practitioners should rely on evidence-based research findings to determine the process of diagnosis as well as the relevance of each of the above drugs. Recent research has revealed that cure is a possibility in some cases, while other patients need to adopt effective management strategies.

Complications of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Research has revealed that this autoimmune disease contributes to the development of certain serious complications for patients. The health of people with this condition usually deteriorates. Systemic lupus erythematosus affects the joints, causing arthritis. In its chronic stage, arthritis may prove to be highly debilitating. Other patients often develop kidney diseases, at different stages of the autoimmunity. Recent research has indicated that the disease may clog the arteries, making an individual highly susceptible to heart failure, attacks, and stroke. These complications also exhibit cases of high blood pressure. Evidently, systemic lupus erythematosus causes complexities in the health of an individual.

Management
As described above, systemic lupus erythematosus exhibits numerous symptoms. Individuals who present any symptom, should seek intervention, and undergo the relevant diagnostic array of tests. After the onset of treatment, it is critical for the patient to develop a strong support system with the physician (Malinvaud 499). The required support system should include regular visits to the health center. The individual should exhibit a positive attitude and participate in the curing process by observing dosage regulations, and reporting any adverse reactions. Exercise is also of critical importance, as well as avoiding exposure to the sunlight

Conclusion
Evidently, systemic erythematosus is an autoimmune disease that affects different body parts. According to recent research, genetic, environmental, and loss of self-tolerance are among the identified causes of this disease. Symptoms are usually numerous, depending on the affected body parts. As research advances, there is hope for better diagnostic and treatment strategies. However, conservative drugs are still useful in some cases. Although the disease causes multiple health complications, adopting effective management strategies can help.

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