The Control Panel for Alarm Systems – Term Paper Example

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The paper "The Control Panel for Alarm Systems" is a perfect example of a term paper on technology. Intruder sensors are devices used to detect any unauthorized motions and convert the disturbance due to this intrusion into signals that trigger an alarm system. Several intrusion sensors exist, each one coming with specific performance characteristics and principles or operations. While volumetric sensors provide surveillance over large coverage areas and can monitor comparatively long distances, point sensors provide a narrow line of sight surveillance. Different alarm systems may use different combinations of these sensors to ensure that all areas of interest have been covering effectively.

This paper focuses on such sensors and investigates their principles of operation and applications. The control panel for alarm systems, which is a central point of monitoring and communication in the system, has also been discussed. The paper also focuses on the communications between the alarm systems and the central monitoring station, which serves as a central point for monitoring and coordination of responses. Sensors Passive Infrared Sensors The passive infrared sensors (PIR) are pyroelectric devices that function by detecting changes in the infrared (radiant heat) from emitting bodies in its surrounding.

Any movements in the surrounding area detected by monitoring any sudden changes in the IR pattern in the neighborhood. When the device detects any movements, it sends out a high output signal. This signal may be sent and interpreted by a microcontroller or may be used to trigger other loads like an alarm system. The sensor is made up of crystalline material that produces an electrical charge when infrared energy falls on it. When the total infrared energy falling on the element changes, the voltages produced by the element also changes.

These signals are then measured by an on-board amplifier which brings the signal to levels that can easily be used for triggering. The devices have an inbuilt Fresnel lens that increases the sensitivity by focusing the infrared energy on the element. Rapid changes in the ambient infrared signals cause the amplifier to trip the output so that motion is detected (Paralax, 2012). With the onboard jumper, users can choose between reduced sensitivity and normal operation. The device’ s sensitivity is greatly influenced by the temperature (see figure below) and other environmental conditions.

When the device is operated in reduced sensitivity, it will detect movements up to `half of the distance covered during the normal operating mode. Figure: Effect of temperature on PIR Distance Detection The optics designed within the device for collecting signals is a major factor that will determine its quality and sensitivity. They will also determine the spectral composition and effects quantity of the radiation that is directed on the element. The crystalline element integrates the optical signal received on its surface and time, before converting it into an electrical signal.

While amplification and signal filtration occurs, the frequency and noise characteristics of the device will determine the accuracy of the final analysis which influences object detection. For objects sizes smaller than the field of view of the optical sensor system, the device decreases the signal to noise ratio with the square of the distance between sensors and object (Madura, et al. , 1998).

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Madura, et al. (1998). Analysis and elaboration of IR detection systems applied in object protection. Report from work No. 103/WAT/98

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