The paper "Potential of New-generation Microbial Enzymes to Improve Energy Value " is a good example of a term paper on agriculture. Researches on possible microbial enzymes to improve energy value and ileal nutrient digestibility have been necessitated by the fact that not all compounds taken by poultry can be broken down by animals’ enzymes that have been generated by the body. Contemporary scholars such as Batterham et al. (2009) have argued that the need to develop microbial enzymes must consider the fact that with the enzymes already in poultry’ s system, some nutrients have become unavailable for these animals.
In as much as there have been researches that have documented how proteases and amylases can be added to facilitate digestibility (see Bell et al. 2001; Champ 2001; Gatel 1994), benefits in productivity can be enhanced even further should there be a new-generation microbial enzyme that ensures all food nutrients are digested. What these studies have established is that feed enzymes have the potential of improving the efficiency of meat and egg production and the reason attributed to this change is the ability of these enzymes to alter the nutritional profile of feed ingredients (Godfrey 2005). However, there is a need to assess whether the already existing manufactured enzymes (exogenous) have the ability to be used beyond simply increasing the digestibility of poorly digested diets.
It is for this reason that the central thesis is significant. In as much as these views continue to be divergent, there is a need for critical literature review for a possibility of new-generation on microbial enzymes that can improve energy value and ileal nutrient digestibility of cereal grains for broilers.
However, as Kemm et al (2011) noted, this study is wider in scope and its conceptualization would need a review of other topics such as nutrient requirements as a broader issue and narrow down to energy requirement utilization and how effective these nutrients contribute to the growth responses. To underscore the thesis statement, journals, books, and articles have been selected to support the literature review. The central point will be to explore the impacts of new-generation on microbial enzymes that can improve energy value and ileal nutrient digestibility of cereal grains for poultry; including positive and negative aspects. 2.2.
Nutrients Requirement of Broiler Chickens Poultry has the ability of converting food products efficiently, quickly, and with relatively low impacts from the environment (King and Dunshea 2000). The interpretation of this finding is that nutrients requirements for broilers should be given consideration owing to the fact that the high rate of productivity of poultry results in relatively high nutrient needs. However, the missing link with this study is its failure to consider the fact that growth, meat production, feed efficiency, and quality of poultry products are factors that should be given consideration when determining the nutrients requirements for broiler chickens. On the other hand, recent research by Jeroch (2008) argued that understanding nutrients requirements for broilers chicken should first consider energy requirements and feed intake.
What the research meant is that the nutrient requirements of broilers and the energy content of given feedstuffs should be expressed with regard to kilocalories where 4.187 kilojoules are equivalent to 1kilocalories. Apparently this position may not be able to give this research insight on understanding possible microbial enzymes that can improve energy value and ileal nutrient digestibility of cereal grains since there are already two existing measures of the bioavailable energy in feedstuffs in use; TMEn (true metabolizable energy) and AMEn (metabolizable energy).
If research will investigate a possibility of microbial enzymes that can improve energy value and ileal nutrient digestibility of cereal grains for broilers then the research by Jeroch (2008) may not help since it negates aspects such as the calculations of TMEn which make an additional correction to take care of endogenous losses of energy that may not directly be linked to the foodstuffs.
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