The paper "Analysis of Plant Tissue Culture " is an excellent example of a term paper on biology. Plants are made up of small components such as cells, organs or tissue that can be manipulated to grow complete plants. Without molecular genetics and plant culture, it would be void to discuss genetic engineering as they are core to this. The technique of plant tissue culture involves placing a piece of the plant such as embryo and dipping it in the sterile nutrient median and the science behind it. This technique production of extra copies of plant, enhance maturity, enables the production of plants without the use of seeds.
Gottlieb Haberlandt reported the culture of leaf mesophyll tissue and hair cells (Sugiyama 1999). This happed close to the end of the 20th century and was the first successful cell culture and plant tissue. He drew the ideas from previous researches and knowledge on the biology of plants. The cells cultured by Habertlandat did not divide and hence no fruits were achieved. It was possible that plant growth regulators (PRs) which are necessary during cell division, proliferation and embryo induction were absent in the culture medium.
He was frustrated by this but his ideas have been used by other scientists. One of his students reported the growth of isolated root tips on a medium consisting of medium salts (Sugiyama 1999). In the 1930s there was progress in innovative plant tissue culture techniques after the B vitamins and natural auxin were discovered as a necessity in the growth of isolated tissues that contain meristem. Walden and Wingender (1995) reported thiamine as promoting growth on isolated tomato root tips.
The first PGR, indoleacetic acid (IAA) was discovered after a series of ingenious experiments with Oat seedlings. IAA occurs naturally and is a member of auxins which is a class of PGR. The IAA stimulated growth in excised roots. Later there were several reported successful cases of plant culture but the progress was disrupted by world war two. Johannes and associates obtained seedlings by enriching culture media with milk obtained from coconut, usual salts, vitamin, and other nutrients. Organs were formed from cultured tissues and organs as demonstrated by Folke Skoog.
Citokinins such as adenine and kinetin were discovered to have vitro shoot-promoting effects for the rapid propagation of plants. This was so, especially for the very important agronomic and horticultural cultivators. Gamborg (2002) investigated the culture of embryogenesis tissue. In order to fulfill Haberlandt’ s objectives, root tips were to lead to organogenesis. Lainbch obtains hybrids after the maturity of the culture medium. He isolated zygote embryos from the non-viable seed of Linum perenne x L austriacum and raised zygote embryos. The process of plant tissue culture includes nutrient medium preparation, explants isolation, equipment, and explants sterilization including sterilization of the medium, inoculation, incubation, hardening and the establishment of the plant in the field. Plant Cell Immobilisation Plant cell immobilization is very important in that: Cells have extended viability in all stages hence biomass is maintained over a longer time period. The downstream process is simplified when the products are secreted. Differentiation is promoted and the secondary metabolism enhanced. Bioreactor size is reduced hence a higher density of the cell leading to reduced contamination risk and cost. Shear sensitivity is reduced especially when the cells are entrapped. In some cases, the secretion of secondary metabolites is promoted. Increased flow rate can be attained by the use of flow-through reactors Fluid viscosity increases which lead to mixing and aeration problems in cell suspension is minimized.
Fowler, M R 2000, Plant cell culture, laboratory techniques: In Encyclopedia of cell Technology, Wiley, New York.
Gamborg, O L 2002, ‘Plant tissue culture. Biotechnology. Milestones.’ In vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology—Plant, vol. 38, pp. 84–92.
Ramage, C. M. and Williams, R. R. 2002, ‘Mineral nutrition and plant morphogenesis.’ In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology—Plant, vol. 38, pp. 116–24.
Sugiyama, M 1999, ‘Organogenesis in vitro.’ Current Opinion in Plant Biology, vol. 2, pp. 61–4.
Walden, R and Wingender, R 1995, ‘Gene-transfer and plant-regeneration techniques.’ Trends in Biotechnology, vol.13, pp. 324–31.