Pest in Plant Biosecurity – Term Paper Example

Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing

The paper "Pest in Plant Biosecurity" is a good example of a term paper on agriculture. Introduction to the problem Australia is comparatively free from many of the crop pests and diseases that are posing serious threats to agricultural industries in other countries. Currently, however, different kinds of pests have found their way into Australia and have established themselves in various parts of the country. These pests are posing serious threats to crop security in Australia, especially in regions such as New South Wales, where crop farming is widely practiced. The pests cause damage to crop production either by feeding on crops and/or infecting them with diseases.

Some of the pests that are posing threat to various crops in Australia include pea leaf weevil Sitona lineatus, S. discoideus, Currant-Lettuce Aphid, Tomato-potato psyllids, and Citrus pest. Others include the Aphids and Sitona species among others. Most aphids have soft bodies, with different colors like brown, green, black, pink or almost colorless. In general, biosecurity has emerged as a major concern both locally and internationally; harmful plant pests and diseases can impact food safety, trade, market access, market development and, ultimately, the profitability and sustainability of plant industries (Jeffrey, Laszlo, & Walker 2001).

The central government, as well as relevant private agencies, must come with Plant Biosecurity to deal with the issue. Plant Biosecurity “ is a set of measures designed to protect a crop, crops or a sub-group of crops from emergency plant pests at national, regional and individual farm levels. ” It comprises a set of practices and activities carried out on a given or part of the farm with the main aim of protecting the crop from the entrance and spread of new diseases and pests (insects and plant pathogens).

(Jeffrey, Laszlo, & Walker 2001). This is a practice carried out in many areas in order to maintain both environmental and agricultural reliability both locally and globally. Crop pest disaster takes place when a pest is discovered and that was not previously not found in the country or a region. This may be an exotic or endemic emergency pest (Simon McKirdy). Some important benefits of carrying out Plant Biosecurity exercise is that it gives an opportunity to most crop industries to have important competitive benefits when it comes to maintaining lower production expenses protect producer’ s output and also it ensures good security to market access.

Plant Biosecurity involves the following quarantine processes exercises: Entomology, Weed and invasion biology, Crop pathology, society engagement, danger analysis, Emergency response scheduling among others. Australia, for instance, carries out plant biosecurity exercises against insects and a disease which may either originate from regions within Australia (endemic pests) or from other countries (exotic pests) and involves State and Commonwealth legislation body. The main aim of Australia’ s crop biosecurity plans is to uphold plant resources and established new pests and diseases.

Most Food and Agricultural Departments have adopted a biosecurity approach with post boundary, pre-boundary and post-border crop strategies as an integral component of the main approach. It is the biosecurity plan in Australia that represents a key threats approach sustainability, efficiency and sustainability, and market entré e and furthermore outlines the best preventive and quick response strategies. Implementation of biosecurity plans for a given industry supplemented with crop biosecurity plans regionally.

References

Allen P. G., Nairn, M. E., Inglis A. R. and Tanner C. (1996), “Australian Quarantine: a shared responsibility”. Department of Primary Industries and Energy, Canberra.

Abrams J, Madden LV, SchaadNW, LusterDG, Frederick RD, Vidaver AK (2006), “An assessment model for rating high-threat crop Pathogens” (pp96: 616–621), Phytopathology.

Hill, L. and Creek, A., (2004), “Lettuce Leaf” (No. 17), “Lettuce aphid weed survey”, “Lettuce aphid projects and How are growers coping with the aphid”

Ashley E, Roberts MJ, Schimmelpfennig D, Livingston M. (2005). The Value of Plant Disease Early Warning Systems: (Report no. 18), A Case Study of USDA’s, Soybean Rust Coordinated Framework.US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.

Peter K. McEwen and Andrew E. (2001), “A key predator on aphids in field crops in Australasia” (Pp 388 394). Whittington, Cambridge University Press.

Bové, J. (2006) “A destructive, newly-emerging century-old disease of citrus trees”.(Pp 7-37) Journal of plant pathology. Huanglongbing.

FAO, (1998), “Guidelines for Surveillance”. (Publication No. 6). International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures.

Dennis O'Brien (2010)."Using a pest's chemical signals to control it". (Retrieved October 18, 2010)"USDA Agricultural Research Service".

Pimentel D, Lach L, Zuniga R, Morrison (2000). “Environmental and Economic Costs of nonindigenous species in the United States” (pp 50: 53–65.) BioScience

Nair, K.S.S. (2001) “pest outbreaks in tropical forest plantations, is there greater risks of exotic tree

species?” (Pp 74) Bogor Indonesia, center for international Forestry Research (CIFOR).

Blackman, V. F. Eastrop (1994). “Aphids on the World's Trees”. ‘An Identification and Information Guide’.

Portero-Larragueta E, Ridgway C, Chambers J, Prosser O. (1999) “Detection of mite infestation in wheat by an electronic nose with transient flow Sampling”, (Pp 79: 2067–2074), Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture.

Dhrupad Choudhury (1985). "Aphid honeydew: a re-appraisal of the hypothesis of Owen and Wiegert". Oikos (Pp287–290).

Jeffrey Granett, Laszlo Kocsis, M. Andrew Walker (2001). “Bio-management of a grape ", (Pp 46: 387 412) “Annual Review of Entomology”

Chongtham Narajyot Shreth, S. John William & Kh. Ibohal (2009). "Laboratory Evaluation of Certain Cow Urine Extract of Indigenous Plants against Mustard Aphid, Lipaphis Erysimum (Kaltenbach) Infesting Cabbage". (Pp11–13) Hexapoda.

Sequeira R. (1999). “Safeguarding production agriculture and natural ecosystems against biological terrorism” A U.S. Department of Agriculture emergency response framework.

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Pp 894: 48–67):

Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
Contact Us