The paper "Food Insecurity in the Middle East and North Africa Regions" is a brilliant example of a term paper on social science. Food security refers to a situation when a region is able to provide enough food for its citizens while food insecurity is the reverse of food security. Most developed countries manifest food security while poor, warring and developing nations manifest food insecurity. Food security is the backbone of a country’ s economy since food is a basic need among the citizens and even among the military. A region with stable food security enjoys economic development, social peace, social growth, and good governance.
Food insecurity leads to an outbreak of nutrition deficiency diseases, other diseases due to lack of strength those food offers, uprisings, and criminal activities as people seek for themselves. Food insecurity first affects children and families living in poverty with long-lasting effects on their health and development. Indeed, food insecurity is the cause of the recent uprisings in North Africa and the Middle East (FAO Web). The Tunisian youth who burnt himself due to lack of employment and food insecurity was the start of revolutions in the Middle East.
Food insecurity arises from poor climatic conditions, war, poor governance, calamities, and poor food strategies. Indeed, many countries in North Africa and in the Middle East are experiencing food insecurity conditions subject to some or all of the listed causes and the situation is deteriorating with time. In the last two decades, the Middle East was facing dire food insecurity and the situation is recurring hence the global concern on this issue. International food prices are hitting an all-time high a situation that puts the Middle East and North Africa region at a higher risk of food insecurity.
As such, just as there were food riots in 2008, the same is happening in recent times. Actually, food insecurity and other social inequalities hold the keys for a prosperous future for the Middle East and North Africa Countries. However, food insecurity varies differently among these regions. While countries like Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates display a low risk of food insecurity, countries like Iran, Libya, Tunisia, and Turkey manifest moderate risk of food insecurity.
Moreover, countries like Yemen, Djibouti, and Somalia, Mauritania and Sudan pose a greater risk of food insecurity (International food policy research institute Web). Actually, the situation might not improve in the near future and these regions face the risk of inability to provide food for their citizens subject to numerous factors. The Middle East and the North African regions are the most water-constrained regions in the world, and reliable surveys project that water scarcity is likely to worsen in the near future.
In the absence of enough water, it will be hard to venture in agriculture and water competition rises among the citizens. Indeed, the Nile basin insufficiently supplies water to almost 10 poor nations that put them at risk of food insecurity. For a fact, water allocation issues will increase instability and conflict in these regions thus furthering food insecurity and denial of a chance to improve the situation. Additionally, scientists predict global warming in the Middle East and North African regions that will lead to poor rains, declines in precipitation thus making the region vulnerable to climate change and food insecurity (FAO Web).
Similarly, global warming will cause an acute rise in the world food prices that will affect these regions negatively insecurity (International food policy research institute Web). The regions highly dependent on food imports and projected increases in food price hence a high risk in the future food insecurity. The growing revolutions and wars in these regions are also challenging food security in these regions. The warring nations will deplete their resources and time in the war front and thus lack the capital and time for improving food security.
In addition, these regions are also subject to growing populations, which jeopardize the fight for food security, and hence food insecurity is likely to persist for a longer time in these regions. Food insecurity will lead to conflicts, high food prices, health problems, migrations, increases in refugee populations, social evils as people scramble for the few food sources, political instabilities, economic degradation, and rooming insecurity. Actually, the recent food strikes and revolutions in the Middle East are clear indications of food insecurity (International food policy research institute Web).
However, improving trade and infrastructure, reforming social security systems, reducing population growth, job creation for the majority, environmental and water conservation, empowering women to play a more active role in the economy and breaking the strong vulnerability to international oil and food price volatility, will aid in averting this crisis. Nevertheless, the application of these measures depends on the available natural resources and financial resources, geographical location, and governance of specific nations. In conclusion, I observe that food insecurity and its effects will persist in the Middle East and North Africa regions unless systematic, timely, and relevant measures coupled with good governance are applied.
Food insecurity contributes to economic degradation and instability in these regions.