The paper "Using of Footing and Slab Construction in One of the Building under Construction" is a perfect example of a term paper on engineering and construction. The footing and slab construction is a very critical procedure since it determines the strength of a building. A well-designed footing and slab will ensure that the building is able to support all the loads it is supposed to handle. The design will, however, vary depending on various factors including the soil type and the loads. The loads will include both the lie loads and the dead weights (Darwin, 2003).
The material used for the construction will also determine the strength of the footing and the slab. If the construction is carried out using poor materials then the chances of collapsing are very high. During the implementation phase, it is also important that good workmanship is practiced. The correct standards of construction including the BCA standard should be adopted. This will not only ensure safety but also the quality of the work will be guaranteed. The paper will discuss the construction of footing and slab as was observed in one of the buildings under construction.
This will include all the procedures undertaken during the construction including the standards applied during the construction. Footing Construction Site Preparation and Excavation This process was the beginning of the implementation phase of the construction. This was done after all the machinery, materials and equipment have been mobilized to the site. Site preparation included the clearing of vegetation and removal of debris on the construction site. This included the use of simple tools and machines. This was then followed by marking the areas where excavation was to be done.
The marking was done after the measurements have been completed. Since the footing was the continuous type of footing, the excavation depth was to be 1000mm while the width of the trench was 600mm. This is considering the reinforcements had to be placed on the footing. After the marking process was completed excavation works began. This was done using the excavator due to its high speed and the soil type. The ground was tough and simple tools could not be used. The soil was removed and wheeled off after the excavation.
However, it was not completely disposed of but was taken elsewhere on the site since it was still useful. After the excavation, the trenches were leveled to ensure that the concrete will be uniformly placed. Figure 1: Site Preparation and Excavation Placing of Concrete and Reinforcements After the excavation process was completed, the next step was placing reinforcements in their correct positions. The center lines were very useful in the placing of reinforcements and were interpreted from the design. The design was however based on the loads and thus the correct size of reinforcement and their positions were determined.
The BRC mesh was not used since it was a continuous footing and thus twisted bars of the Y series were used (Newby, 2001). In this particular case, there was no need for timbering since the soil was firm enough and could not collapse. The reinforcement was tied all around the trench according to the specified design details. This process was then followed by the placing of the concrete. The concrete mix used was 1: 3: 6 in order to achieve maximum strength.
The concrete mixer was used to prepare the mix so as to make the process faster and save time and resources. Extra men were hired during this process for the purpose of saving time. During the placing of concrete, some of the men were also compacting and vibrate in order to remove all the air bubbles and to make the concrete strong. This process was mainly done by the use of a poker vibrator. This was mainly because of heavy reinforcement. The poker vibrator was very appropriate and fast at the same time.
In some instances, manual methods were also used to carry out the process of compaction.
Darwin, N, 2003, Dolan. Design of Concrete Structures, the MacGraw-Hill Education, p. 80-90.
Threlfall, A., et al, 2008, Reynolds's Reinforced Concrete Designer's Handbook – 11th ed. ISBN 978-0-419-25830-8.
Newby, F, 2001, Early Reinforced Concrete, Ashgate Variorum, ISBN 978-0-86078-760-0.
Brainard, B, 2012, How to Construct a Concrete Slab, Retrieved on 2 April 2012 from,
Building Code of Australia, (2012), Moisture resistance of slab on ground construction, Retrieved on 2 April 2, 2012, from,
Danbury, C, 1992, Engineering. In The New Book of Knowledge (Vol. 5, pp. 224–225), Grolier Incorporated.
Gajda, J, 2001, Energy Use of Single-Family Houses with Various Exterior Walls, Construction Technology Laboratories Inc.
Lancaster, L, 2005, Concrete Vaulted Construction in Imperial Rome, Innovations in Context, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-511-16068-4.
Karade, S, 2003, Assessment of wood-cement compatibility: A new approach. Holzforschung, 57: 672-680.
Beckwith, T, 2012, How to Time Concrete Slab Curing, Retrieved on 2 April 2012 from,