The paper "Aggression Theories and Their Evaluation" is a great example of a term paper on social science. Aggression can be defined as the intentional behavior to harm or cause injury to another person or individual who is determined to resist such behavior. Resistance is aimed at avoiding harm that could otherwise be of adverse effects to the victim (Baron and Richard 7). Aggression can either be classified as physical or verbal, direct or indirect. Verbal aggression is that form of aggression that is done through the word of mouth.
This is normally analyzed by recording the subject’ s speech and taking note of his use of words. The behavior of the perpetrators is usually hostile or even offensive but more than often they are unprovoked. The goal-response of aggression is injury infliction to an organism. In an attempt to understand aggression, many theories have been put across by different proponents. Most of these are in relation to Biology. Examples of these theories as found in books and other materials are aggression vs. heredity, aggression vs. frustration. In this paper, only two of the many aggression theories will be discussed (Hewstone and Stroebe 317). Frustration vs.
Aggression Frustration can be associated with aggression depending on how one argues out his points. Freud, a socio-psychologist who managed to come up with lots of theory in psychology, argues that aggression related to his statement of pleasure is should be sought while pain should be avoided. It is argued that aggression might not necessarily lead to frustration but frustration always leads to the aggression of some form. Not all injuries can be classified as forms of aggression. This is so because individuals meet such forms of injury every day without having to be involved in an aggressive act.
For instance, a doctor inflicts pain to a patient without his consent. In an illustration, if the person who is frustrated is particularly strong than his victim, then he is likely to be aggressive towards that individual. On the other hand, if the frustrated person is overpowered by his victim in terms of strength then he is likely to be less aggressive even if the situation calls for it. Aggression is not always caused by frustration nor frustration caused by aggression.
This is best illustrated by Hewstone and Stroebe (318). An assassin who is paid to take out individuals kills his prey without even knowing the victim. In this case, the assassin does not experience any form of aggression or frustration in order to kill his victim. Aggression can be caused by one's frustrations if the individual has higher expectations of an exercise that has negative results as those expected by such a person. If two groups of students were to sit for a test, one group has greater expectations of passing the test and the other low expectations of the same.
If the results are released and the group with expectations of passing fails the test, they may be frustrated that can also lead to aggression. On the other hand, if the other group fails the test, they would be expected to demonstrate the same intensity of aggression as they were psychologically prepared for the outcome.
Baron A.R. and Richardson, R.D. Human Aggression. New York: Springer. 2004.
Geen, R. and Donnerstein, E. Human Aggression: Theories, Research, and Implications for Social Policy. New York: Elsevier. 1998.
Hewstone, M. and Stroebe, W. Introduction to Social Psychology: A European Perspective. New York: Wiley-Blackwell. 2001.
Huesmann, R. L. Aggressive Behavior: Current Perspective. London: Springer.1994.
Karen, H.E and Kritsonis A.K. National Forum of Applied Educational Research Journal. Vol. 20. 2006.
Krahe, Barbara. The Social Psychology of Aggression. London: Psychology Press. 2001.