15 February, 2011Introduction Industrial accidents are very common. Chemical calamities in industrial premises entail fire, detonation, gas leaks, spills of dangerous substances, accidents in the process of hauling dangerous chemicals as well as exposure to ionizing radiations. The impact of such calamities, especially health related ones, may be long term and even extend to the next generation. Technological risks of greater magnitude and impact can be referred to as disaster like the Bhopal tragedy. Chemical risks are gradually becoming common with progressive development. Clear management principles and practices for dealing with such emergencies arising due to chemical risks are indispensable.
The basic principles of dealing with all technological risks, together with chemical ones, are Avoidance, Prevention and Mitigation. Avoidance refers to the way of reducing the potential of the hazard. This can be achieved through various methods such as use of safer chemicals, having small inventories, operation at lower temperatures and pressures, among many others. These options are subject to availability of technology and economic viability. Avoidance as well needs suitable location and layout of a factory and also the control of all developments nearby after the establishment.
Prevention is the process of minimizing the probability of accidents (hazards) in a given situation. This calls for steps for preventing failures, improving detection (like leaks), laying down shut-down procedures and methods, having proper relief site layout, smooth operation and maintenance. The aim of improvement is to reduce effect when an accident occurs. Emergency action plans, both on-site, are prepared and rehearsed to achieve this goal (Das & Behera 262). Literature review Program managementAll industries must have an industrial hygiene program.
All levels of administration in a corporation ought to be devoted to the institution and upholding of a safe and healthful place of work for an industrial hygiene program to operate and accomplish its objectives. For the plan to be successful, it has got to contain both organizational and financial backing. Both top and middle levels administrators ought to establish the program strategy and make sure that the company functions in the best interest of the employees’ health. They must commit resources, manpower, time as well as money to the full implementation of the program.
They must as well offer the authority and demand answerability for the health protection of the workers. Commitment throughout an organization to the program begins with the manager of the industrial hygiene program (Williams, James and Roberts 530). The most significant requirement in the development, management and maintenance of a successful industrial hygiene program is top management support. Without top-level support such a program is not possible. Industrial hygienist ought to develop this support by teaching the production managers the merits of good sound industrial hygiene principles from both the moral and economic point of view.
It is significant for the industrial hygienist to convince these young production managers and executives of the need for industrial hygiene programs since their paths will cross again and again in handling upper management. The subsequently significant matter in the expansion and retention of a quality industrial hygiene plan is the acquisition of qualified subordinates. This is a continuous process in the larger programs and is a far from simple issue. It is important for a quality industrial hygiene program to seek employees from institutions that train them well.
Since most industrial hygiene programs are chronically shorthanded and can ill afford laggards on their staffs, it is extremely important to interview any prospective new employee very carefully. The other factor of a quality industrial hygiene program is the importance of the industrial hygiene analytical program. If one harnesses the field industrial hygienist to the industrial hygiene chemist, a synergism is developed that is rare in any staff function and is particularly rare in the occupational health field where turf differences are common (Garrett, Cralley & Cralley 3).