The paper "Architecture Technology in the 19th (Industrial Revolution) and 20th Century" is an excellent example of a term paper on architecture. Introduction Technology is the practical application of knowledge garnered from scientific advances to solve problems or satisfy certain needs in daily human life. Every human endeavor needs technology to make it easier. Different people understand technology in different ways depending on their background orientation (Senk 42). Architecture is artistic designing, structuring, and constructing physical building structures. Architecture technology is, therefore, the application of advanced scientific knowledge to the designing, structuring, and the actual construction of physical building structures.
Architecture technology is as old as humankind (Ali and Moon 205). Architecture Technology in the 19th Century The nineteenth century is associated with great advances in technology including the industrial revolution of 1760 to 1840 (Wengenroth 1). The industrial revolution led to the transformation and introduction of modern methods of construction, the introduction of new machines, and new solutions to existing and emergent problems (Adeboye 27). The architecture sector was transformed by the emergence of new technology in construction during the industrial revolution. Coal was the kick start for the industrial revolution not only in the U. K but the whole world.
Coal energy replaced wood energy and could provide three times power compared to wood. Therefore, coal provided fuel and power on a massive scale. Coal energy enabled the manufacture of iron, coke, and glass in large quantities (Raji 20) The industrial revolution enabled the replacement of old building materials with new ones. Previously, building materials were mostly lime mortar, stone, timber, and concrete. Metals were rarely used. For instance, in 1800, the production of iron stood at 825,000 tons in the world.
The industrial revolution increased its production to 40 million tons by 1900. Industrial revolution technologies enabled the production of iron in three forms namely cast iron, wrought iron, and steel. Cast iron contained a high degree of impurities making it brittle. Wrought iron was more refined and malleable with medium tensile strength. Steel was the most versatile and the strongest of them all. Steel was manufactured through a conversion process where impurities were removed out of the iron ore through combustion. After burning, carbon was added at predetermined levels to improve hardness.
Steel had tensile strength, and it was compressive. Its strength was greater than any other material previously known, and it revolutionized architecture (Web 2) Portland cement was invented in 1824 and due to its questionable tensile strength builders invented the technology of reinforced concrete. Concrete was used to protect iron and steel bars from weathering and fire in buildings. The invention of cement came with the invention of cement taster and the cement mixer in the mid-19th century (Web 2). New methods of manufacturing glass known as the cylinder process developed in Europe in the early 19th century.
In 1832, Chance Brothers started producing sheet glasses. This new technology of producing glasses enabled the production of larger panes of glass without interruption or breakage (Adeboye 29) Previously there were only machines for making bricks in small quantities but new technology during the industrial revolution introduced new machines for mixing clay and making bricks in large quantities. For instance, Hoffman Kiln was invented in 1858 for the production of bricks and ceramic products. The kiln produces bricks in batches.
It contains a series of manufacturing rooms and a rolling fire wagon that burn bricks one room at a time until they are vitrified. The kiln could use any fuel including wood fuel, gasoline, and natural gas (Raji 44).
Adeboye, A. Babajide. “Effects of Industrial Revolution on Ecclesiastical Architecture in Nigeria: A Case Study of Faith Tabernacle at Ota” International Journal of Management Information, 3.2 (2015): 27-34. Print.
Ali, Mir, and Kyoung, Moon. “Structural Developments in Tall Buildings: Current Trends and Future Prospects” Architectural Science Review, 50.3 (2007): 205-223. Print.
Kondo, Ariyuki. “The Rise of Modern technology and Symbolic-functionalism: The Expression of “Englishness” in the Functionalist Theory of A.W.N. Pugin” European-American Culture Department (1998): 1-9. Print.
Raji, A. Mustapha. “Architecture and Emerging Cities: The Impact of Technological Change in Building Material: A Study of Minna, Nigeria, Arts and Design, 7 (2013): 19-48. Print.
Salama, Ashraf, and Remah, Gharib. “Architecture Planning Built Environment Studies” International Journal of Architectural Research, 7.1 (2013): 1-196). Print.
Senk, Peter. “The Plugin Concept: Technology and Aesthetics of Change” Architecture, Research, 1.2 (2013): 42-51. Print.
Grabar, Owen. “ Islam, Art, and Architecture” International Journal of Architectural Designs, 3.1 (2006): 8-23.Print.
Tucker, Lisa. “18th & 19th Century Sustainable Design Technologies in the Eastern U.S.” Baca Del Rio 39 (2008): 23-29. Print.
Web: https://www.museumwales.ac.uk/401/ Retrieved 2/12/2015
Wengenroth, Ulrich. “Science, Technology, and Industry in the 19th Century” Munich Center for the History of Science and Technology, (2000): 1-34. Print.