Macro & Micro economics, Term Paper Topic: Animal Farm Introduction: George Orwell created this satire “Animal Farm: A Fairy Story, ” to highlight the drawbacks of political systems and the suffering of the common citizens. A group of animals decide to seek emancipation from human tyranny, oust the humans from the farm (power). The promised equality for all the animals is not forthcoming and eventually some ‘more equal’ animals perfect a system of tyranny of their own. The novella is a stinging critique of the Russian Revolution.
It allegorizes the rise to power of the dictator Joseph Stalin. In this story, the human oppressor Mr. Jones is overthrown by a democratic coalition of animals but soon the pigs occupy the center stage of animal politics and usurp power. They establish the ruling class. Once the pigs as a class take over power, they create such a situation, wherein the other animals had to submit to their command and soon, the events take a new turn. The struggle for supremacy between two pigs—Snowball and Napoleon gives another twist to the story.
Compare it to the struggle between Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin! False confessions and executions take place in the animal kingdom. The novella describes in depth, how the founding principles of the Russian Revolution are given a go. Pigs take to violence and adopt human traits and behaviors; they are like the original oppressors of animals, the human beings! Political structure Animal Farm provides the detailed analysis on the development of class tyranny and the human tendency to establish supremacy under the guise of class/race etc. , even when the legal position guarantees equality for all on all counts!
He explains how the Russian Revolution of 1917 that kindles hope that it is a step towards socialism for the poor and oppressed citizens of Russia is proved false.
According to him, Stalin’s rise to power through barbaric means is the betrayal of the principles of socialism and the move to create a hierarchical society in which the rulers will not be willing to give the power of their chair. To hold on to their seat of power, doublespeak on all issues is the accepted style of their functioning to fool the people. The rulers will systematically perfect procedures to suppress the freewill of the people and to create a picture that whatever they say or do is correct, and whatever correct is there in the world belongs only to them.
In their political garden, no other sapling is allowed to grow, except the one of their choice. Economic structure - means of production and distribution George Orwell stands for democratic socialism, to ameliorate poverty.
His definition of this political philosophy is, when state takes charge of means of production and distribution, the people of the nation are in a position to share its rewards and profits. In a capitalistic society the nation’s means of production and distribution are privately owned. Socialism stands for government regulation of a nation’s economy to achieve the objectives to close the gap between the poor and the rich. He is against totalitarianism viewed from any angle, and champions the cause of democratic socialism.
He is also against fascism, in which the ruling party takes complete control over all aspects of people’s lives. Social structure – what was the life of the working class like, in comparison with that of the leaders Through Animal Farm Orwell shows how men exploit animals, and similarly a totalitarian state exploits common people. Under the Communist regime, socialism is only at the propaganda level and in real terms exploitation of the worst order continues for the people from all ends.
The will of the people is subdued and they have no voice at any stage of the policy formation to run the affairs of the country. Orwell builds the structure of the plot with the portrayal of the Russian Revolution. Political leaders have perfected the art of exploiting the people, once they occupy the powerful chairs. They have the hidden agenda and they mesmerize the people with the oratorical skills to get them elected to the position of power. Once they are there, the process of abusing the rights of the people begins.
They are led in the direction in which the leadership drives them to go. George Orwell describes. His political purpose of depicting socialism in its correct perspective goes haywire and the animals exhibit different kinds of human traits and their bitter struggles for power and freedom is explained at length. His ideal farm turns from "All Animals Are Equal"(37) to “Some Are More Equal Than Others, ” (37) and he realizes this as some animals try to usurp power to enjoy more comforts and show unwillingness to solve the social and economic problems of the common citizens.
Conclusion Capitalism is bad, Communism is worst and Democratic Socialism is difficult to administer.
Orwell highlights the shortcomings of the hardcore communist regimes in his satirical style and takes potshots at their methods of suppression of freewill of the people. People are like the puppets in totalitarianism states. All the negative instruments to remain in power like censorship, surveillance, use of language with double meanings, twisting of historical facts are used with ruthless efficiency. The highhandedness of the administration is further accelerated by tapping phones, enter residences for search by adopting unauthorized procedures, intercept mails, make maximum use of the propaganda machinery just like Satan quotes the Bible, suppress all the facts that are inconvenient to the regime in power, and to retain power at all times and at all costs.
In such a grim state of affairs, any individual will turn cynical and they are forced to live below the level of their satisfaction and their will to revolt is crushed. Their mental conditions reach to such low levels that they are not willing to believe, there are belter living conditions, than what has fallen to their lot.
Any rebellious mood of the population is stifled through torture and other life-threatening procedures. I entirely agree with the views of Orwell on Capitalism and Communism and share his grief over the failure of Democratic Socialism as well. This brand of political system is dear to his heart. The “Powerful Chairs” (Politicians, administrators and military generals) continue to suppress the “Chair less Powers” (the common citizens). No Politician are not willing to vacate the chair because they always have a fear that if they are out of power, the next rulers may use the same oppressive methods against them, to rule over them.
Works Cited Orwell, George. Animal Farm: A Fairy Story, A Novel. n. d.
London, Secker and Warburg, 1945