The paper “ Analysis of the Overhead and Back Head Squat, Changes in Muscle Activity and the Effect of the Length-Tension during Squats” is a potent example of a term paper on sports & recreation. The squat is widely practiced by many athletes during their training. The Squat contributes specifically to the activation of the largest and most powerful muscle in the body. It also displays the greatest physical test for lower body strength. Scientifically, it has been proven that the major body muscles affected during the squat exercise include; the quadriceps, hamstrings, gastrocnemius and the gluteus maximus muscles (Gullett, J., Tillman, M., Gutierrez, G & Chow, J, pg 284-291) Sir Isaac Newton describes the laws of motion clearly stating that when the body is in motion will always remain in motion at the same speed in a straight line(Exrx) Contrary, anybody or mass at rest will also constantly remain at rest unless pushed by an external force.
According to the law of acceleration, Newton said that acceleration in a body will always occur in the same direction with the force that triggered it.
Finally, Newton said that for every action, there must be an opposite and equal reaction(Exrx) When applying to squat, there are a number of forces an athlete must be able to overcome during the exercise. The athlete needs to overcome the gravitational forces of his body and the barbell weight in order to push up during the squats exercises(Exrx). The movements of the bodyAccording to the video, during the back head squat, the athlete started standing upright with the weights or barbell placed across the trapezius muscles(found in the upper neck).
As the body of the athlete lowers down with the barbell, there are several changes that occurred on the body movement and muscles. Moreover, the body of the athlete also engages in a backward movement of the hips followed by the bending of the knee. this is viewed both in the front and side positioning of the athlete in the back squat video. The knees were positioned in a way that they protruded and extended beyond the toes. Most therapists support this movement by saying this is the safest way of positioning during the back head squat as it minimizes injury and helps full muscle growth. Nevertheless, for the overhead squat, the action involved the athlete squatting with both arms lifting the weight bar (barbell) high above the athletes' head.
The athlete stood up with feet hip-width to shoulder-width apart. The overhead squat involved several steps, which the athlete followed during the training. The body movements were very slow with a constant break between each set to help reduce risks of injury. On the side view, the athlete was shown to stick out the butt and moved the backside outward and backwardly.
This formed an exact posture, which positioned the rest of the body mass away from the middle line. The athlete also focused on curling the lumber vertebra up to an extension e. g. when a scorpion curves when raising its tail. Changes in muscle activity and the effect of the length-tension during squatsBoth the knee and the hip muscles undergo flexion when lowering down while the ankle muscles are contracted to the maximum levels during the back squat action. Contrary, it is considered that when the knees slide forward, tension is created, which is eventually taken in from the hamstring hindering the power of the ascending squat (Gullett, J., Tillman, M., Gutierrez, G & Chow, J, pg 284-291).
During the ascending squat, as the body of the athlete in the side view video gradually returns to the previous vertical position, the hips and the knee muscles undergo extension (relaxation) while the ankle plantar flexes(Gullett, J., Tillman, M., Gutierrez, G & Chow, J, pg 284-291). In the case of an overhead squat, it’ s important to note that the exercise involved different groups of body muscles affected in order to keep the weight bar up over the head.
Whenever the toes are positioned outwardly, the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint is laterally placed corresponding to the medial malleus. During the overhead squat, the knees demonstrated an inward/outward movement. Fundamentally, the inward movement mainly during the squatting usually creates stress to the knee and the nearby muscles. This is because of the inward movement of the patella over the first MTP joint. From the biomechanical point of view, whenever an athlete is performing the overhead squats, the effective variant of weight (barbell) acceleration will always be characterized by incorporating velocity. The class of lever system being used in the squatDuring both the back head and overhead squat, the force is applied by the athlete between the fulcrum and the load (Gullett, J., Tillman, M., Gutierrez, G & Chow, J, pg 284-291).
The body muscle contraction in the athlete rather is the force applied specifically to the point the tendons attach the bones at the knee. The barbell being lifted by the athlete forms the resistance to the force.
This is helpful to the athlete since the ascending and descending squats ensures the muscles affected are fully worked on to achieve strength.