The paper “ The Use of Concept Mapping in Education” is a potent variant of a presentation on education. The use of concept mapping is essential in enabling one to illustrate the relationship between concepts and ideas visually. The concept map enables students to organize and structure students thought to enhance understanding and discover new relationships. It allows the teacher to transition from one stage to another i. e. introducing concept from simple concept to a complex concept without affecting learners' understanding and real-life application of the theory (Ministry of Education, 2010). The concept map below shows a five-stage teaching program for Australia history. 2.
ASSESSMENT PROGRAM Timing Outcomes + Content/Skills/Processes Task Description Justification Week 1 3 hrs per lesson - 3 days Total: 9hrs The stage one content includes; The personal and family history The past of the present history i. e. historical places, sites and people The outcomes of the above content ensure that the students are; -Able to narrate their family history. -Able to provide an understanding of change and continuity in the family line and use historical terms appropriately -Able to identify and describe historical events, people, and sites. -Able to demonstrate the understanding of the effects of technology on people’ s lives i. e.
new ways of communication and storing of information. The class will start by elaborating some of the key terms used and giving an example of a historical story either based on personal, family, or any historical story based on people, places, or sites. The students are then required to participate by; First, each student is required to narrate personal or family history in front of his/her colleagues to improve student ability to communicate boldly and develop public speaking skills. Secondly, the students are required to use historical terms to improve their capacity to narrate past events precisely. Thirdly, the students are required to elaborate on key learning outcomes of the previous lessons by asking questions. Lastly, students are going to take the home questions to research based on the topic covered in the next class.
The provision of an example helps learners understand and apply the key concept in formulating their stories. Revisiting previous lesson outcomes and giving the student a question to work out at home ensures that they remember, evaluate, and create content. Thus, taking care of lower and higher-order thinking levels (BOSTES, 2011). Week 4& 5 -2hrs per lesson -6days Total: 16hrs The stage two content is the Australian history whose sub-content includes; Community Remembrance First contact Assessment of student understanding (group and individual report) The outcomes of the above content ensure that the students are; -Able to identify celebration and commemorations of significant events and people in Australia -Able to describe and explain how great people and events have contributed to change in society -Able to describe individuals and events to exploration and its effects on the world. -Able to describe and explain the effects of British colonialism on Australia. The lesson will be delivered in three sections that are teaching, group work, and individual work. The teaching entails the introduction of Australian history and first contact by British colonialism. The students in groups will research on various events and people on how they influenced the change of society over time.
Also, they are required to compile a description of individuals and events that contributed to world exploration. The groups are required to present their finding to colleagues and are graded out of 10 of the total marks. The individual is required to compile a report on their topic of choice on a historical event, exploration, or people.
It will be graded out of 10 of the total marks. Teaching enables students to understand and apply the key concepts of the topic. On the other hand, group work enables slow learners and quick learners to interact and exchange ideas (BOSTES, 2011). The individual report measures the understanding of the student through analysis, evaluation, and creation of content. Also, it acts as a measure of individual student understanding of the topic. Week 6& 7 -2hours per lesson -6days -Total hours: 16 The stage three content includes; The colonies of Australia Australia as a nation The outcomes of the above content ensure that the students are; -Able to describe and explain the importance of groups, places, groups, and events that have led to the development of Australia. -Able to describe and explain individuals experience of living in Australia over time -Able to recognize change and continuity and elaborate causes and effects of transformation to Australian society. -Able to elaborate struggle for rights and freedom by Australian society i. e.
the people of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander The ¾ of the learning time entails teaching and remaining ¼ of the time will provide for the students to present take away research but it will not be graded.
Also, the time will be provided for teacher-student interaction to help in ironing out any issue arising. The students are required to respond to a question from the previous lesson. The content of this topic requires the teacher to take students to step by step in explaining the concept. Therefore, teaching time is more than the students’ participation. The student's participation will enable students to demonstrate their understanding through application, analysis, evaluation, and creation of good historical literature. Week 8& 9 -2 hours per lesson -8days -Total hours: 16 The stage four content includes; Theories of movement of people out of Africa at around 60,000years ago. Ancient evidence of societies. Explanation of geographical setting and natural factors that influence development. Visit one of the archaeological sites and museums. The outcomes of the above content ensure that the students are; -Able to describe the importance of archaeological sites and museums in the preservation of history. -Able to elaborate major historical time and origin of Australian societies -Able to describe the development of societies in the past from stone age, industrial, and now information age. - Able to identify the meaning, context, and purpose of historical sources. -Able to gather information from various sources such as artifacts, written, oral, and digital form. The class teaching will take 6hours of the total 16hours.
The session will only cover the introduction and explanation of the topics that will be covered during out of class sessions that will take the remaining 10hours. The student will actively participate in studying the artefacts of historical information. Also, they are required to link what they have learned in class and the historical evidence in museums and archaeological sites. The students are required to have continuous assessment test that tries to check on learners understanding on topics covered.
The assessment contributes to 10% of the total marks. The visit to the museum and archaeological site improves students’ perception. It makes learning more interesting and they access the real evidence of what they study in the classroom. Also, it promotes learner understanding of the key concept (Bourke, Allen, Parker, & Gabrovec, 2001). Week 10 -3 hours per lesson -3days -Total hours: 9 The stage five content includes; The methods and process of collecting and recording historical information. Contribution of the technology to history studies The importance of preservation of history Assessment of learners The outcomes of the above content ensure that the students are; -Able to clarify and assess forces and factors that shaped Australia and the modern world -Able to link people, events, and places to develop good historical literature. - Able to clearly show the evolution of the social, economic, and political fabric of Australian society. The lesson will be more interactive and mostly out of the classroom session. The learners will be introduced to various methods and processes of collecting, recording, and storing information. The students are taught how to document their lives, family, event, or people through use technology i. e.
digital cameras and use of cyberspace to disseminate historical information. The final assessment which weighs 70% of the total marks. The learners can gain from the lesson through the application of what they have learned by creating historical information to be used in the future, create historical literature, and share new knowledge obtained with the world through the use of the internet. The final assessment measures the effectiveness of the teacher programs in ensuring that students understand and able to apply the knowledge imparted to them (Bourke, Allen, Parker, & Gabrovec, 2001). 3.
RATIONALE FOR THE PROGRAM The history subject is a discipline that inquires about the past and helps to explain various events, actions, people, and forces that might have shaped the world to what it is at the moment. The understanding of the current situation requires linkage from the past, for example, Charles Darwin's theory tries to explain the origin of human beings and links to other theories of how human intelligence developed from a primitive human.
These theories include human development which started from the Stone Age to Industrial and now information age. Therefore, history is aN interesting topic that preserves information from the past that helps us understand the current happening. The study of history provides learners an opportunity to discover human actions and accomplishments from a range of historical evidence (Griffin, 2002). The study of history fosters student ability to extract, analyze, and create new historical literature that is essential in shaping the discipline in the current world.
The sources of information include written, oral, artifacts, and visual sources. The failure to train historical scholars might impact the quality of historical content in the future thus impacting negatively the pride of the future generation will have on their heritage. The following overview elaborates the importance of teaching students about history and precisely the history of Australian society; The study of history imparts the learners’ curiosity and imagination by inviting them to ask and help in answering questions through engagement with past and imagining and speculating about the future.
The discipline subjects the students’ choices, dilemmas, and beliefs of people in the past in which they connect students with a wider perspective as they develop their individual identities and sense of place. According to the assessment program, it is evident that the study started from a simple example of historical information at a personal and family level. It then advanced to more complex historical information that includes the origin of Australian society which traces back to 60,000 years ago (Griffin, 2002). Therefore, students can engage in history from a personal level to local and international levels. As mentioned earlier, history molds future scholars who will pass on the historical information to the future generation.
The discipline has a clear mandate of developing the research abilities of students. The study of the origin of our diversity in Australian society acts as a stimulating factor that makes students dig in for more information to give them an informed understanding of its origin. A good example is the understating of the Treaty of Waitangi and Treaty’ s principles, ongoing relevance, and values.
Therefore, the research-based approach to the disciplines encourages a number of students to take the scholarly path.
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