Toxicology Assessment of Organophosphate Fire Retarded Products – Research Proposal Example

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The paper "Toxicology Assessment of Organophosphate Fire Retarded Products" is a good example of a research proposal on science.   Aims and Objectives The objective of this project will be to evaluate the most commonly used flame retardants based on phosphorus element. The flame retardants are Triphenyl phosphate, Tributylphosphate, Tris (2-butoxy ethyl) phosphate, Tritolyl Phosphate, and Tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate). Literature Review Triphenyl phosphate Common applications In 1984, Triphenyl phosphate was used in Japan in resins for manufacturing automobile and electrical parts and as a non-flammable plasticizer in cellulose acetate for photographic films. It is also used as a plasticizer in lacquers and varnishes, a non-combustible substitute for camphor in celluloid, and for impregnating roofing paper and as a component of hydraulic fluids and lubricant oils (Sundkvist, Olofsson & Haglund, 2012, p.

943). Chemical and physical properties It is white in physical appearance, its Phosphorus content is 9.5% by weight. The specific gravity is 60° C / 60 ° C is 1.268 the melting Point is 49° C and its acidity as phosphoric acid is 0.003%. It is solid at room temperature and has a melting point of about 48 -50 ° C. Its boiling point is 245 ° C (at 14.6hPa).

It also has a density of 1.2055 g/cm³ at 50 ° C. It is heavier than water with a vapor pressure of 25 ° C with 0.000835 Pa. (Vidair 2004, P. 300).   c. Intrinsic toxic effects on human health and the environmentAccording to the van der Veen, & de Boer, (2012, p. 1137) triphenyl phosphate causes contact dermatitis and it can act as an inhibition to human blood monocyte carboxylesterase which has adverse effects on the immunologic body defense system. There are different reports with different results from different authors about triphenyl phosphate.

Some authors say that the compound is neurotoxic but others have found that it has low neurotoxicity or causes delayed neurotoxicity. d. Exposure assessments, persistence, and bioaccumulationAccording to the World Health Organization (1991), concentrations in water within the environment are low and there are no possibilities for toxic effects on aquatic organisms. Triphenyl phosphate is rapidly removed from the bodies of fish after exposure.

References

Follmann, W., & J. Wober. 2006. Investigation of cytotoxic, genotoxic, mutagenic, and estrogenic effects of the flame retardants tris-(2-chloroethyl)-phosphate (TCEP) and tris- (2-chloropropyl)-phosphate (TCPP) in vitro. Toxicol. Lett. 161:124-134.

Gordon, P.L & O'Dell, C. & Watkin, J.G 1994. “Synthesis and energetic content of red oil,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 87–105, 1994.

Green J. 1996. A Review of Phosphorus- Containing Flame Retardants. Journal of Fire Sciences 1996; 14; 353.

Kasper S., Daae, H.L., Thorud, S., Ellingsen, D.G., Lundanes, E. & Molander, P. 2010. Exposure to airborne organophosphates originating from hydraulic and turbine oils among aviation technicians and loaders, J. Environ. Monit., 12, 2259.

Patil, L.K & Gaikar, V.G, Kumar, S., Kamachi M.K. & Natarajan, R. 2012. Thermal Decomposition of Nitrated Tri-n-Butyl Phosphate in a Flow Reactor. Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai, India.

Saleem MA, Williams FM, Wilkins RM, Shakoori AR, Mantle D. 1998. Effect of Tri-O-cresyl phosphate (TOCP) on proteolytic enzyme activities in mouse liver in vivo. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 1998; 17(1):69-73.

Sundkvist, A.M., Olofsson, U., & Haglund, P. 2012. Organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers in marine and fresh water biota and in human milk, J. Environ. Monit., 2010, 12, 943.

van der Veen, I., & de Boer, J. 2012. Phosphorus flame retardants: Properties, production, environmental occurrence, toxicity and analysis. Chemosphere 88 (2012) 1119–1153.

Vidair C.A. 2004. Age dependence of organophosphate and carbamate neurotoxicity in the postnatal rat: extrapolation to the human. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 196 (2004) 287– 302.

Wright & Hartmann, P. 2010. “Review of physical and chemical properties of tributyl phosphate/diluent/nitric acid systems,” Separation Science and Technology, vol. 45, no. 12, pp. 1753–1762.

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