Theology Questions (The Bible And Archeology) – Research Proposal Example
BIBLE The Documentary Hypothesis (DH) suggests that the first books of the Bible’s Old Testament (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy, or the Pentateuch) represents a compilation of indpendent documents. The hypothesis was formed by Wellhausen. There is no proof for the DH, but the hypothesis has been fairly influential.
2. The Fertile Crescent is an area of geography. It comprises the fertile area of ancient civilization along the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. This is where modern-day Iraq exists; it is differentiated from other fertile areas of ancient cultures, such as the Nile River Valley.
5. The United Monarchy of David resulted from the followers of Yahweh deciding that they needed a king. This broke from strictly military rule, as Saul became the first king for a few years, and then David was second. “David (1005-965), from the tribe of Judah, followed Saul. Solomon (968-928), son of David and Bathsheba, followed David as king of the united monarchy” (Original, 2008); the United Monarchy of David ended when Solomon died.
6. The Divided Monarchy of Israel was what resulted from the downfall of the United Monarchy of David, into the early 900s BCE. “This period is part of the archaeological period known as Iron Age IIA. Following the United Monarchy, the Divided Monarchy ran from about 928-722 B.C” (Original, 2008). It was a period of comparative unrest and dissociation.
7. Tribes, according to the view of ancient Israel, were not made up of a category of the nation-state in a modern way. They were made up of earlier arrangements which grew out of the original families and clans. As families and clans grew into tribes, the nation state of Israel developed.
#9 Israel was an early nation-state that had a lot to do with Judaism and Christianity. Originally Israel was of course, since the Jews came before the Christians, a nation having to do with Bible Old Testament Judaism. Christianity came later as a combination of Judaism and Roman Universalism, with Jesus seeking a return of the kingdom of Israel.
14. The role of Israel’s patriarchs was basically that of guiding society. Like many ancient societies, strict gender divisions were marked in the regions described in the Old Testament. Therefore, patriarchs acted as the heads of families, based on a system of patriarchal lineage (first son inheritance). The religious duties in advanced cases were left up to men.
15. In terms of the role of Joshua in the Bible, according to the Bible, Joshua was the son of Nun. He was also from the tribe of Ephraim. Joshua in the Bible was a major military figure who campaigned during the events of the Exodus. He knew and associated with Moses and was present at the unveiling of the Ten Commandments, and was also a victorious general.
16. In terms of the role of David in the Bible, he was a very important figure. He continues to represent hope and resilience to many Christians, and was seminal in many Bible stories as the King of Judah. David remains one of the most recognizable figures of the Old Testament.
17. The Babylonian Captivity refers to the period after the Jews were driven out of the Kingdom of Judah, and went to Babylon. They were driven out by Nebuchadnezzar.
“The captivity and subsequent return to Israel are pivotal events in the history of the Jews and Judaism, and had far-reaching impacts on the development of modern Jewish culture and practice” (Original, 2008).
18. The Neolithic Age was a general time period of human development. There were not many things that Neolithic humans had mastered in terms of metals. The Neolithic Age preceded the Iron Age in most areas.
19. The Early Bronze Age was another time period of human development. During this era, metalworking advanced over the Iron Age. They started to smelt copper and tin to make bronze.
22. Mari is a town on the Euphrates River, which is near present-day Iraq and Syria. There were texts written in Mari that were similar to Hebrew scriptures, in terms of its significance for the Biblical story. Texts found at Mari and the Bible had very similar descriptors and languages.
23. The Amarna Letters were found in Egypt. Tel el Amarna was in ancient Egypt near the Nile River about halfway between Memphis and Thebes. “In 1988 there were about 400 cuneiform tablets discovered at this site which were part of the royal archives of Amenhotep III and Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) who reigned about 1400 BC” (El, 2009). In terms of their relation to the Bible, these letters were written by Canaan kings to the Pharaohs. Therefore, there is a clear association to events contemporaneous with those of the Bible.
Original New Advent Encyclopedia (2008). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
El Amarna Letters (2009). http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/israel/el-amarna-letters.html