The paper "Under Population, Not Overpopulation" is a wonderful example of a research paper on sociology. CIA World Factbook estimates the fertility rate in United s (US) to be 2.05. This brings the population growth rate to a mere 0.975% (2009). Considering the growing trend of diseases like HIV and Cancer, increasing deaths through crimes and the rising lack of interest amongst the younger generation to bind oneself in the bond of marriage, a time may come when the population growth of the US, similar to some European Countries, would become negative. This would have deadly repercussions at all levels. A decrease in population growth rate will cause the age structure to become more aged. Consequently, the population percentage of teenagers and the middle-aged people would decline. It is this age group that constitutes the working class of a country. A shorter workforce would result in the decrease of a nation’s productivity and a nation’s total output. The lesser inflow of earnings into the state treasury would, thereby, have disastrous consequences on the economy. The very situation, currently, plagues the European Nations at large, ascertained by the fact, “European nations will experience severe worker shortages with a loss of 20 million workers by the year 2030 if the current birth rate continues (Eberstadt, 2000).” At the same time, there will be a larger percentage of old people availing the subsidized social services, drawing pension, hospital insurances etc. A greater population at the receiving end (old people) and a smaller population at the giving end (workforce) would ultimately cause an insolvency of the social insurance programs. The government would literally go broke paying for the consumers who will be nothing but a burden on the country. Moreover, old people, quite understandably, tend to utilize hospital facilities more frequently. A greater demand for medical attention would lead to an increase in the prices of these services. Not only would this affect a layman who has a limited income but large businesses as well because a large number of health schemes are employer funded. In light of the impending problems to the nation, if the fertility rate remained at such low levels, the government must introduce incentives to enhance immigration of workers or encourage young couples to have more children. Some major steps like raising the retirement ages or encouraging women to enter the workforce could also help counter above mentioned issues (Hall, ¶ 7).