Social Security – Research Paper Example
Social Security Social security is a program through which governments give security to socially conventional issues such as poverty, old age, disability, unemployment etc, and social security is everyone’s right. The government announces the right to social security in the declaration of human rights and International Covenant on Economics, Social and Cultural rights. The government provides social security by providing some basic needs to people that are social insurance, income maintenance, services, basic security, and non-contributory benefits. In the social insurance program, employees get profit and services from the authorities (Modigliani, 2004).
Services consist of retirement pension, disability insurance, survivors benefit and unemployment insurance etc. In the income maintenance program, people are given payment if their job ended in retirement, and if someone lost his/her job because of some legitimate reason, he is compensated by authorities. In services, people are given all medical facilities, features of social works and industrial relations etc. In basic security, people are given basic needs like cloths, food, house, education, money and medical care etc. In the means tested, people who are not fulfilling their basic needs like food are given financial assistance, clothing, accommodation etc. In the non-contributory program, authorities give benefits to those who are not working for the social security program like to armed forces veterans, disabled persons and to the elderly. (Modigliani, 2004).
For the security purpose in 1993, the Supreme Court issued the Brady act. According to that act, not everyone has permission to buy a gun without any authentic reason. Sheriffs and police chiefs from 28 states were given an order to investigate the handgun purchasers. Sheriffs from all states condemned that investigation and said that congress did not have the right to order for investigation and this is illegal. Due to this, circuit court of appeal splits, fifth circuit court belongs to Sheriffs and ninth circuit court belongs to the federal government. The cases were firstly approach to ninth circuit court by Montana Sheriff Jay Printz and Arizona Sheriff Richard Mack and then given to the Supreme Court for the decision. The Brady act was too large in size and considered a burden on the state. Due to the Brady act, federal relations were also affected (Kopel, 1999).
For the social security in 1973, the Supreme Court took the decision that it is the responsibility of the court to take those types of decisions that save women. According to Roe V Wade, a woman can make an abortion in her 7 months of pregnancy. However, in recent years, abortion has been restricted by v. Reproductive Health Services and Rust v. Sullivan. In 1973, congress has also passed a constitution related to prohibition of abortion but the senate and house did not pass this constitution bill. Afterwards, the court decided that abortion funds will not be given to the people except in the case of rape and if the woman is in a poor medical condition (Lewis & Shimabukuro,2005).
Segregation is also one of the major security issues. Segregation is the division of public places or services by racial difference. Public schools were also segregated. Because of that blacks had a feeling of inferiority. Brown V Board has fulfilled the dreams of blacks. The Supreme Court gave the decision that Brown V Board will not divide on racial basis and decided that all schools will integrate with each other without any force of racial difference. Many schools integrate with no resistance but whites resist desegregating. The outcome of the resistance is the conflict between blacks and whites. In 1964, NAACPs started a campaign to eliminate institution segregation from American life (loc.gov, 1977).
Social security is given to people by the government when they do not earn enough money to fulfill their basic needs like food and clothes or when they face some major problems like torture. The government provides security to the people as I have discussed in the Brady act, abortion act and segregation. The Brady act in which the Supreme Court passed a law that no one can buy a gun without any authentic reason and ordered police and sheriffs to investigate. In the abortion act, the court passed a law that the government will not give funds for abortion except in the case of rape and women in a poor medical condition in order to try and decrease the rate of abortion. In the segregation act, government has given equal rights and complete social security to blacks.
Cambridge, UK ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 2004
Kopel, B, David. The Brady Bill Comes Due: The Printz Case And State Autonomy, George Mason University Civil Rights Law Journal, 1999.
Lewis, J, Kerin & Shimabukuro, O, Jon. CRS Issue Brief For Congress: Abortion: LegislativeResponse, Congressional Research Service, Library Of Congress, 2005.
Modigliani, Franco. Rethinking Pension Reform / Franco Modigliani, Arun Muralidhar.
With An Even Hand: Brown V Board At Fifty, Retrieved on 11/3/2012 by http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/brown-aftermath.html, 1977.