The paper "Learning Team-Problem Formulation And Identification" is an exceptional example of a research paper on education. Collective-Participative is the decision-making process whereby all the stakeholders and the members of a particular organization are involved. Information is usually shared amongst every member who is concerned. However, in many occasions, it is only the leader who can make the final decision regarding the matter at hand. In other words, the leader seeks the participation of others in order to learn new ideas and opinions (Luthans 2004 p 89). The weakness arises through the influence of subjective opinion.
The leader may engage other people in a discussion, but since he is the only one who can make a final decision, he tends to satisfy his feelings regarding matters that every one else decides on the contrary. There is a likelihood of totalitarianism in such kind of decision making. Brainstorming is a common method of decision making in organizations whereby members participate through contributing new ideas to particular issues affecting the organization. People may generate ideas in groups as well as individuals.
This is a method that is known to lead to the development of solutions regarding important matters. However, the disadvantage is the fact that people have different ideas. It may take longer to reach a decision when many people participate in decision making (Luthans 2004 p 93). Moreover, decisions are made later on after considering all the contributions; hence it may take longer to make a decision. Step Ladder is almost similar to collective-participative, but members join a group in turns. After a discussion between two or more people, another member joins to introduce his or her ideologies.
After this, another one may join later. However, decision making requires people who understand the situation and people who have known all the processes involved. The entry of new members with new ideas causes confusion when members agree on an issue, which is later refuted due to disagreements arising from new ideas that come from new members. The decision-making process may take longer to be accomplished (Hinsz and Nickell 2004 p 256).