The paper "A Physical Introduction to Fluid Mechanics" is a great example of a research paper on physics. The impact of a jet experiment was aimed at determining the values obtained through the experiment of the force directed towards a variety of shape targets and then subjecting this to comparison with the values in theory and therefore obtain a validation of the force values in theory. Theory In the past decades, scientists have discovered several ways of utilization of the force that can be exerted by a fluid jet on a surface that diverts the flow (Nicholas, 1990).
For instance, the use of the rotating has been used in the making of flour. Other than that, several turbines are still in use is in the second and at times in the first stages turbine running on steam. People dealing with fire use the moving energy possessed by a jet to avail water at a level that is above the nozzle so as to be able to extinguish fires in buildings that are much taller. Jets of fluids are also utilized in the metal industry for debarring as well as cutting operations.
Several applications involving fluid jets play a very important part in technological development. A model in theory for the force required in holding the surface of impact in a stationery position is attained through the application of several expressions of momentum and continuity in an integral form. The model details are dependent on the nature of the fluid that leaves the surface of the impact. That is whether it is symmetrical in nature in relation to the vertical axis or it is symmetrical in nature in relation to the horizontal axis. Fluid motions are often caused by the force effects of the surrounding of the fluid.
For a general situation the flux of the momentum in a fluid jet is given as; (m x Uo) Where: is the flow rate of the mass (Kgs) is the velocity of the jet at the upper stream of the vane. Following deflection through an angle, the flux of the momentum is (m x u1cos) which is in the x-axis direction. The force experienced by the fluid is then given as (m x u1cos) – (m x u); this force also acts in the direction of the x-axis.
Therefore the force F in the x-axis direction is found to be: (1) For the case of a flat surface target whereby =90 and therefore then the equation (1) changes to: In the case of a hemispherical target surface that is a cup, whereby the =180 and therefore cos = -1. This makes the equation (1) to change to F=m x (Uo-U) Furthermore, if the reduction in speed happens to a rate that is negligible such that (Uo=U1) then the equation (1) takes the form In this kind of experiment it is much difficult to directly measure the upper stream vane value.
However the initial velocity u with which the fluid exits the nozzle is possibly determined. The velocity at entry is very minimal due to declamation resulting from the force of gravity and its calculation can be made from the expression of Bernoulli relationship which is;