The paper "Major International Sporting Events in Asian Nations: Olympic Effects on Tourism" is an excellent example of a research paper on sports and recreation. Major international sporting events, particularly the Olympics, resulted in major improvements in sports venues and facilities, public infrastructure, transportation, and creation of new and modern public facilities in Asian nations. The effects of holding the Olympics on tourism activity are generally positive, sometimes, even more after the Olympics than during it, because of the long-term benefits of infrastructure development. The Tokyo 1964 Olympic Games, for instance, led to the construction of sports venues and hotels, as well as supporting communication, manufacturing, and transportation systems (Hwang 17).
Seoul also made similar investments when it held the Olympics in 1988. Private and public sectors invested in manufacturing, construction, and services too (Hwang 19). Jen-Te Hwang noted that the immediate tourism effects are not always visible, but long-term tourism benefits are perceived because of increased global brand equity as a tourist destination and vast infrastructure developments that have long-term uses. As for China, it made a huge investment in its effort to rebrand itself as a “ global player” as it hosted the Olympics, and tourism industry effects are not significantly evident during the Olympics itself, but more after it (Wnorowski 24).
To abide by the requirements of the International Olympic Committee (IOC), China built the Olympic Park and the 37 stadiums and venues that hosted Olympic events (Sands). China also invested in transportation and infrastructure, as well as urban renewal. Beijing spent more than $200 million to tear down dilapidated housing and urban buildings; renovate 25 historic areas, counting numerous of the city’ s landmarks, old streets, and beautiful, four-corner residences that were made during the imperial period; and refurbish Beijing’ s many historic places, including the Forbidden City (Sands).
China also decreased hotel ownership restrictions to encourage the building of new hotels and similar lodging venues (Sands). Some scholars such as Holger Preuss and dissertations from Hwang and Alicia Wnorowski noted that large public investments did not/will not automatically result to successful gains in tourism industry revenues and the national economy in general for these Asian nations, although the lasting effects of infrastructure development and other changes in communication, transportation, and public facilities, had/will have lasting tourism industry effects due to better global image and improved tourism venues and amenities.