The paper “ The Anti-Islam Discourse of Medieval Europe, the Crusades, Orientalism, European Colonialism" is a fascinating variant of a research paper on social science. For over 1000 years, the West has influenced what Islam is and determined any expression that can and cannot be pronounced of Muslims. This has put the West in confrontation and antagonism with the Muslim world. For over 1000 years, the West has influenced what Islam is and determined any expression that can and cannot be pronounced of Muslims. This has put the West in confrontation and antagonism with the Muslim world.
However, there have been changes to this discourse over the past years with a different perspective in Medieval Europe and during the time of Orientalism. This paper is geared up to compare the West anti-Islam ideas in Medieval Europe with the 19th Century Orientalism that brought about the agitation of colonialism in Europe. Literature ReviewIn the conquest of the world, Europe brought with them preconceived ideas that Muslim and Islam had a backward way of life and needed to be helped to civilize. This notion was the conviction of Medieval Europe in the conquest of the Middle East, Asia and the Eastern part of the world (Lyons 43).
Lyons brings to light the reason for negative perspective toward the Muslim world. He argues that for decades the West has considered the Muslim world as a hostile people whole are envious of the Western civilization. In Medieval Europe, they used force to conquer the Middle East and the rest of the territories owned by the Roman Empire. However, this changed in the 19th Century when the West embraced Orientalism.
Through Orientalism, the West has redefined, distorted, and even exaggerated the differences between the Arab and Western civilization. The Medieval Europe notions fueled the Enlightenment in Europe and the consecutive colonization of the Arab world (Frakes 1). However, through marginalization and exotic portrayal of Arab culture, the movement for political freedom sparked in the Arab world and has continued to this day. Edward Said in his book Orientalism (1978) wrote a lot of medieval reference to non-Muslims as well as to Muslim. The authors describe the situation at the time with limited use of trajectory and analysis.
However, they lay well the descriptive study with a few selected examples (Frakes 1). Said argues that the European expansionism was based on the use of knowledge as a powerful force against the Orient. The European power argued that Muhammad was a fabricated religion leader. This notion was also used in the 19th Century as was in Medieval Europe. One example of the result of the Orientalism is the Western geographical boundaries that continue to elicit conflict in the Arab world. For this reason, the Western negative reference to the Arab world, brought about Enlightenment in the Middle East as it did in Medieval Europe (Kinoshita 75). The use of stereotype against the Arab world is synonymous in Medieval Europe as well as in the 19th Century Orientalism.
The Arab world have been portrayed as people who do not value the lives of women, as well as a sexually insatiable region. The ‘ feminine’ exotic has thus defined the Muslim world for a decade, and this has connoted negatively their contribution toward civilization (Kinoshita 75). Moreover, Medieval Europe just like the 19th Century Orientalism have depicted the Arab world as a corrupt and despised world with a mystical religiosity (Kinoshita 75).
This propaganda gave out authority to the Western world to infiltrate and undermine the Arab culture while introducing the Western way of life and education to the Muslim. However, the anti-Islam and Orientalism have not achieved its mission by the 19th Century. The Arad have resisted Western domination in academia, religion, and science even after the West orchestrated finding. Method/ApproachThe research looks at the secondary sources of post-Medieval Europe and the 19th Century literature.
The authors of this time documented fundament history, fact and aims of the European power in their quests for anti-Islam semantic and Orientalism. For them, it was a positive gesture to introduce civilization into uncivilized society. However, the Arab world hesitantly and without knowing embraced the European sentiment. The sources used are credible because they rely on primary sources to write their description and analytical modes of Medieval Europe. Moreover, the explanation I have used in writing the literature review helps in comparing the two-period in question towards anti-Islam.
The Medieval text used to write about anti-Islam and Orientalism are so specific and link the negativity towards Islam to the nationalism in Europe as well as colonial expansion in the Arab world.