Addiction and Responsibility – Research Paper Example
Philosophy al Affiliation Introduction Processes whereby a person adapts and continues repeating a certain behavior despite of harmful consequences are known as addiction. When one is addicted to something, he or she may not have control over what he or she is using or doing. In matters concerning addiction, using psychological theory and evidence, one may become addicted to anything. In another case, one cannot become addicted to anything basing an argument on psychological theory and evidence. Psychoanalytic theory which entails personalities namely; the id, the ego and the superego was founded by Freud (Glass, 1991). He stated that the id of a person is childlike, impulsive and instinctive since cravings, urges, and needs require intimate satisfaction. The superego on the other hand, is thought of as the conscience or parent based because it is a moral component of the personality in an individual. In this theory, anxiety is the key factor and driving force since it overwhelms the ego though it signals a great threat. An individual depends on defense mechanisms such as avoidance, projection, regression, and denial when anxiety overwhelms. For example, substance abusers who often deny having a problem, undergoes denial mechanism. This is well portrayed by addicts of alcohol abuse. An individual practices substance abuse in order to defend him or herself from anxiety (Thombs, 2006). They do this in order to protect themselves against painful emotions such as depression and overwhelming anxiety. By doing this, one does not develop effective mechanisms to cope with the situation.
Other theories concerning addiction include genetic theory, exposure theories which include biological models, exposure theories which include conditioning models and adaptation theories (Schaefer, 2008). These theories should be able to describe addiction as it occurs in human experience in the society. The genetic theory of addiction is also known as addictive analysis and it separates environmental factors of addictive behavior and genetic. Through this theory’s definition, one can become addicted since he or she inherits genes from the parent. On the other hand, an individual may not inherit certain behavior genes from her or his parent because the genetic structure may be interfered with or interfered/altered. This may be as a result of displacement or deletion of important inheritance genes. Therefore some individuals cannot become addicted to anything through genetic inheritance (Poland, 2011). For example, it is not necessarily that born and raised children by alcoholic parents become addicts of alcohol in the society. On the other hand, those children can become alcohol addicts since they may possess some genetic predisposition to alcoholic addiction in that case.
In the theory of exposure (Biological Models), the assumption that the introduction of a certain substance into an individual’s body on a regular basis will uncontrollably lead to addiction has been made (Pierce, 2013). It is assumed that when a person subsequently uses harmful drugs such as cocaine, he or she definitely becomes an addict. Therefore, it is believed that one would become addicted to anything due to biological model of the theory of exposure. This has not yet been proved to be through since it is not guaranteed that one becomes an addict due to biological model of exposure. The theory bases its argument on assumption that the introduction of a narcotic into one’ body may result to metabolic adjustments. The adjustments hence lead to increased dosages of a certain drug so as to escape withdrawal. This justifies the statement that an individual would become addicted to anything.
Another theory known as theory of adaptation consists of social, environmental and psychological factors which influence an issue of addiction among individuals in the society (West & Hardy, 2009). The theory gives an implication that an individual may be addicted to use or do something due to social, psychological or environmental factors adaptations. If a person lives in an environment where all people around him or her are alcoholic addicts, he or she will definitely become an alcoholic addict. This may be brought about through peer pressure and bad influence among individuals. On the other hand, it is not mandatory that an individual will adapt addiction of alcohol in that matter. He or she may stick to his or her good moral standards hence not adapting the addiction behavior.
In summary, I would like to say that addiction has been majorly experienced among many individuals in the society. Important issues which include environmental and social in one way or another affect addiction issue in the society. It is believed that the extent to which non-biological aspects help in playing an important role in establishing addictive behaviors are not well defined and established. I have given clear points of arguments and evidences concerning the issue of addiction. In one way or another, we may become addicted to anything. On the other hand, under certain circumstances, we cannot become addicted to anything.
Thombs, D. (2006). Introduction to Addictive Behaviors. New York: Guilford Press.
Bourne, P. G. (1974). Addiction. New York: Academic Press.
Glass, I. B. (1991). The International handbook of addiction behaviour. London: Tavistock/Routledge.
Pierce, R. C. (2013). Addiction. Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
Poland, J. S. (2011). Addiction and responsibility. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Schaefer, W. S. (2008). Addiction. Detroit, MI: Greenhaven Press.
Thakkar, V. (2006). Addiction. New York, NY: Chelsea House.
West, R., & Hardy, A. (2006). Theory of addiction. Oxford: Blackwell Pub./Addiction Press.