The paper "Programming Using C++" is a great example of a report on logic and programming. There are many data structures in computer science. An ADT is a model (mathematical model) for particular classes of data structures with similar behavior, or for other programming languages that have the same semantics. The mathematical preconditions, as well as the constraints, characterize a particular ADT. In the code shown, there is a collection of unique keys and values, and as in the syntax, each key is supported by one value. The supported operations include creating an empty map, lookup for a particular value that is associated with a specific key, only if the key is present, querying or inquiring whether the map contains a given key, inserting of a key, removing a key, which would mostly be together with its associated value.
Inserting is done when the key is not already present while removing the key is if the key is already present. The above-explained specification is clearly manifested in the code, where expressions such as cout< < "cant pop data: stack empty"< < endl; constitute the operation to create an empty map.
In this case, this code could create anything, for example, a list of natural numbers, integers, phonebook among other things. In the code, functions such as //create a stack of natural numbers could be used to create a stack of natural numbers, integers, or even phonebook. In this code, we have utilized the push and pop mechanism in c++ to either add or remove elements in a stack, for example, s. pop(); s.push(45); s.push(28); s.push(29); would facilitate the creation of the shown natural numbers. In this case, you can perform as many functions or operations as you wish using this code, provided the entries well spelled out.