The paper “ National Risk Assessment of Brazil” is a fascinating variant of a report on social science. Combinations of physical and human causes are behind the floods and mudslides in Brazil. In 2011, Rio de Janeiro state experienced mudslides and floods with a death toll rising to 541 (Fox News, 2011). This was the worst-ever natural disaster in the country. In January 2014, Sao Paolo flooded and was declared a state of calamity after mudslides and floods claimed the lives of more than 10 people and about 10 others were missing in southeast Brazil.
A landslide in the Natal region in the mid-2014 city destroyed 25 houses (Fox News, 2014). d) Environmental degradationThe Brazilian rainforests especially Amazon is under threat from predatory logging and deforestation (Sawyer, 2008, p. 1748). This leads to climate change and affects regional biodiversity. Other practices such as illegal cattle ranching and agriculture have devastating effects on water resources, food, and the environment. Deforestation and cattle ranching has caused the wanton killing of Jaguars and other forest carnivores. When forests and important vegetation are under threat from loggers and ranchers, the nation is likely to experience encroaching desertification and severe damage to livelihoods. e) Malaria and dengue feverBrazil reports more than 400,000 cases of Malaria and dengue fever annually owing to proximity to the wet Amazonia forest and swamps (Lesser, 2013).
This is considered as a national risk because expanding the geographical distribution of mosquito vectors and dengue viruses, and urbanization in Brazil is bringing more people into contact with the viruses. Common breeding grounds for mosquitoes are solid waste disposal services and household water storage. f) PollutionBrazil has many industries with high pollution potential with minimal mitigation measures taken (Young, 2002, p.
11). This is because the country is investing in high intensive industries in food and agro-processing. Cities such as Sao Paolo are a highly polluted city followed by Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte. These cities also suffer from nitrogen oxides and acetaldehyde that have a substantial effect on the ozone layer. Brazil is home to about 13 percent of all known flora and fauna species. This biodiversity is threatened by industrialization and agriculture, and with increased trade liberalization, the country is experiencing high concentrations of pollution-intensive export industries (Sawyer, 2008).
Export-related industries such as footwear, paper and cellulose, and metallurgy report the highest levels of pollution intensity.
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