Being and Nothingness by Jean Paul Sartre – Outline Example
Being and Nothingness Jean Paul Sartre Claim - We are free to make our own choices, and are therefore responsible for whenever we are in bad faith.
I. Personal Argument
a. The claim made by Sartre can be proven true. Human beings are without a doubt responsible for their thoughts and actions.
1. Human beings are responsible for their own actions. They are free to make their own choices and accept what they believe are and is not true.
b. Sartre begins the essay Being and Nothingness by evaluating what it is to “be” and to appear. (xlvii – II)
1. To appear is what enables individuals to believe something is real. The ability to see something shows that it is reality.
2. Personal arguments go against the statement that is something is to appear then it is real. The statement made by Sartre is meant to be for an atheist mind. An atheist is in firm belief that if you cannot see something then it is not there. The statement does not appeal to the close minded individual and many statements can argue against this.
3. Personally, something does not have to be there in order for it to be real. It is believed that human beings have a sense of knowing something without having to actually see it. As later described by Sartre, it is an unconscious way of knowing. Human’s ability to feel allows for things to be believed. The claim is a social and religious claim in the sense that Sartre explains what it is to be in the pursuit of being.
a. Consciousness can be described as being aware and alert. Someone who is conscious can relate to others and create their own ideas. Ideas created include the ability to decide what is and what is not. Sartre explores consciousness and the way things are perceived.
1. (lvii – IV ) The being of the percipi. In the beginning paragraphs Sartre questions the possibility of many different options to explain how consciousness allows individuals the ability to perceive different things.
2. Sartre explains that being conscious allows humans to obtain knowledge.
3. This appeals to all since all individuals wish to obtain knowledge. Without the ability to obtain knowledge nothing could be done. The greater the knowledge, the greater humans are able to perceive. Regardless of social class or religious and political belief, all conscious beings are free to make their own choices and which knowledge to seek and believe.
b. Being conscious does allow humans to be able to obtain knowledge. This is a fact since consciousness allows humans to be alert and able to perceive different things that allow the ability to make decisions.
1. A conscious mind can do so much more than an unconscious mind. An unconscious mind appears to others but is unaware that others appear. Since the mind is unconscious the mind is unable to make decisions and form opinions and beliefs.
2. Sartre is true on the level that being conscious allows humans to be able to obtain knowledge. Knowledge is what allows humans to learn from birth and interact among one another.
III. Ontological Proof
a. Ontological proof sums up the findings that are important to credit claims made by Sartre. When making philosophical claims such as the claims made by Sartre, the importance relies on facts and whether or not the reader can become convinced or state a counter argument.
1. “We are going to see, on the contrary, that this very transphenominality requires that of the being of the phenomenon. There is an ontological proof to be derived not from the reflective cogito but from the pre reflective being of the percipients.” ( V. Paragraph 1)
2. Sartre sums up is findings by evaluating his own claims. The work of Philosophers from his time is questioned and the claim that humans are free to make their own choices and are responsible for their own bad faith is supported.
b. Reviewing the work and findings of Sartre has allowed for questionable thoughts. Humans that appear to others are in fact real since they appear. The ability of being able to see makes things real.
1. To counter argue that all things that are to appear are real, it is important to take in the perceptions of someone who maybe blind or deaf. They are in fact conscious. Does this mean that because they are not able to see or hear what appears that it is not real?
2. The statements made are close minded and appeal to a specific type of individuals. Being conscious is the state of being but humans can believe and seek knowledge without actually having to see what appears.
c. Consciousness is a way to seek knowledge. Knowledge allows individuals the ability to know what is right, wrong, good or bad. This leaves minimal argument in the sense that humans are responsible for being of bad faith.
1. Humans have the ability to accept what they believe based on knowledge and own personal beliefs. Some may need to see things in order to believe, while others with strong faith are able to feel things without having to see them to realize they are there.
a. Humans are able to be consciously alert of their surroundings, feelings and emotions. Each feeling and emotions allows beings to react and perceive. The ability to perceive creates an idea of what ones is to believe. The ability of knowing and gaining knowledge also means the ability to make decisions. Free will and the ability to perceive things in any way one chooses make one’s self responsible for actions, faith and specific beliefs.