The paper “ Environmentally Sustainable Buildings - the Calculation of Heating and Cooling Loads” is an actual variant of a math problem on engineering and construction. In the 21st century, the environment and energy are the two major components that need to be conserved and used in a sustainable manner so that the future generation can also benefit from them. One of the ways in which the conservation of energy as well as the environment can be achieved is by building houses that use less energy as well as ensuring that their impact on the environment is a minimum.
This can only be possible if the design parameters of the houses are accurately determined and appropriately adhered to. For any house to sustain life, it has to have a reasonable temperature, sufficient ventilation as well as enough light. These parameters are mostly obtained from the environment. Since the parameters are constant, therefore the design of the house will be important in ensuring the best conditions for life sustainability in the house are attained. It is also important to note that the cost of the house should be minimized as much as possible, this can be possible only by ensuring that the materials used in building the houses are cheap and meet the required standards, therefore, a proper evaluation of the purpose of each material against the cost must be recorded so that the material that meets the required conditions with the minimum cost is selected. Heat transmissionHeat in a house must be kept constant all the time.
The heat gain and the heat loss must be controlled so that their rates are kept to the standard rates.
Heat transferred mainly through conduction, convection, and radiation. Heat transfer by conduction is mainly heat transfer through solids such as walls, slabs, ceiling, and roofs. Heat transfer by convection involves fluids (air and liquids), this relies on the density changes of the fluids in that heat is transferred from a low-density region to a high-density region through convectional currents. Radiation is another mode of heat transfer that is mostly transferred through space, mostly sideways and downwards. The common and most applied principle applied in heat transfer is that’ heat moves from a warm region to a cool region’ .
This is because, in the warm region, the density of the air is reduced hence, as a result, the air becomes lighter which makes it easier to move and then replaced by a denser and heavier air. The heat gain in a house is influenced by a number of factors which may include; The available house space; this affects the energy required to heat the house. A smaller house space requires less heat energy to heat the house than a larger house space. The design of the house; this affects the extent to which the heat energy is required as well as the possible obstruction to the heat if for an example a house has more rooms then the amount of heat energy required to attain a standard temperature in the house is more than a that required by a house with few rooms. Ventilation; refers to all the possible openings that a house has such as doors, windows, and permanent openings that allow heat to escape from the building hence as a result heat is lost and needs to be gained later on. Some materials that can decrease heat loss from the building (insulators) may also affect the rate of heat gain because if insulators are available that means that the rate of heat loss is minimal hence the heat gain is faster.
Koenigsberger O.H., Ingersoll T.G., Mayhew A., and Szokolay S.V., Manual of tropical housing and the building, part 1- climatic design, Orient Longman, Madras, 1975.