# Networks Report – Math Problem Example

Question 1 There are two networks in the given diagram. The networks use a star topology. Star topology involves several devices connected to a central switch. In the case of the given diagram, despite only one client computer being sown, the presence of a switch means that other devices are connected to the client side network, hence leading to the conclusion that the topology used is of the star variant (Yadav, Kaushik & Verma 2014, p. 80). Regarding the number of networks, only two networks are in the diagram given. This is due to the presence of only one router.

A router is used to connect to at least two networks by serving as gateways to each of the networks involved (Cisco). In the figure given, only the router connects the client side network to the server side network, making them two discrete networks connected through one router. Each layer contains the followingClient device, in this case a computer, contains the physical, data link, application, presentation and session layers. Client side switch contains the network and transport layersThe router contains the network and transport layersServer side switch contains network and transport layersThe server contains the physical, data link, application, presentation and session layersThe server and client devices contain the physical layer due to their connection to ethernet cables and other physical components (Kumar, Dalal & Dixit 2014, p. 463).

They also have the data link layer that corrects errors in the physical layer. Additionally, the server and client devices run applications such as email and browsers. These applications deal with certain file formats that have to be converted to network compatible formats by the Presentation Layer.

Finally, the network connection sessions of these applications is maintained by the Session layer. The router and the switch uses the Network Layer to decide the most appropriate virtual circuits that the packets are to be transported from one point to another (Kumar, Dalal & Dixit 2014, p. 464). Transport layer then kicks in to take charge of the actual transportation of the data packets. When data is being sent through a network, it is directed based on the IP address. The router and the switch both use the IP address to determine the destination of the data.

But once the data leaves Layer 3, Network layer and enters layer 2, the data link layer, it meets 2 sub layers. The first one is called the LLC, Logical Link Control Layer, and the second one is the MAC, Media Access Control layer. The LLC uses the IP addresses but the MAC layer uses MAC addresses. Every device connected to the network has a unique MAC address. The data link layer matches the IP addresses with their respective MAC addresses.

Resultantly, data is then transmitted physically to the specific MAC address of the destination. Question 2Different signals have varying transmission speeds due to the interference. Wireless transmission is prone to more interference than the wired variety. Wired transmissions are subject to electromagnetic interference and radio frequency interference (Cisco Systems 2003). Wireless transmissions on the other hand have more barriers due to their unguided nature. In addition to electromagnetic and radio frequency interference, wireless systems are affected by physical barriers such as houses, hills and trees make it difficult for signals to penetrate (Harwood 2009, p.

3). Moreover, environmental factors such as lightning and fog weaken signals too. The potential problems that can arise from increased voltage include increase in operating temperature. The temperature may have counter effective outcomes on the network. At extreme temperatures, network devices can be damaged. Propagation time is defined as how long it takes for data to travel at the speed of light from source to destination (O3B n. d). To reduce this delay, an administrator can start by replacing slow propagation media with high propagation ones for example replacing coaxial cables with fiber optic cables.