Because of repeated use of these words in their correct situations, Australians have developed a flawless usage, and have problems with people who misuse them. Though they do not display their displeasure because of respect, they all the same feel bad when the words are wrongly used. RESOURCESThere will be a list of relative pronouns and their use in sentences. The sentences will have correctly used relative pronouns, and incorrectly used ones. If possible, there will be an audio tape record of people using the relative pronouns in sentence construction. BOARD ORGANIZATIONList of relative PronounsWhoThatWhichWho and ThatThat and WhichUsed with peopleUsed with animals and thingsCorrect Usei) The man who came this morning is the new teacher.
(person)ii) Here is the book that my father bought. (thing)iii) That is the cat that spilt all the milk. (Animal)iv) I have come to call the boy that came in late this morning. (Person)Incorrect useI have seen the man which you talked about. The animals who were bought yesterday are healthy. The flower who was planted this morning needs watering. The baby which my sister gave birth to is sweet. The correct use of the relative pronouns will reinforce those who are already doing it correctly while the incorrect use will help those with weaknesses to make the desired corrections. PROCEDURESTAGE/TIMINGTEACHER ACTIVITYSTUDENT ACTIVITYWHYINDIVIDUAL/GROUP/WHOLE CLASSINTRODUCTION5 MINS5 minsLanguage Focus5 to 10 Mins2 to 3 mins2 to 3 minsInput and initial practice: 10 to 15 mins5 mins15 mins10 mins15 minsConclusion5 mins“Ask students if they remember anything about the visit to the Shopping Mall”Remind the students about the forthcoming visit to the Duty Free Shop at the Airport.
Ask them to say what they anticipate to see.
Ask students to remember and state what they wanted to know about the Duty Free ShopsMotivate them to ask questions about the people and things they are likely to find at the Duty Free Shops. Lead students to master the correct use of relative pronouns, and the importance of using them correctly. Ask students if they know how using relative pronouns can make communication easier. Inform the students’ Australians are good communicators and respect people who communicate well. One of the qualities of a good communicator is the ability to join sentences using relative pronouns ‘who’ ‘that’ and ‘which’ as shown on the board.
Play tape (if available) of role play where two people are asking and answering each other questions related to buying and selling items in a Duty Free Shop. Ask students move around the class and ask each other more questions in a buying-selling situation e. g.Q. Who made this beautiful dress? Q. What keeps this place cool? Q. What keeps mice from destroying cereals in the shop? Ask students to explain any similarities and differences or interference carried from their 1st language to English.
More role playing, with recording of some students as they discuss. It is likely that relative pronouns will be used both correctly and incorrectly. Explain how the patterns of relative clause formation and joining of sentences is done. Students to say what they saw at the Shopping Mall and how they reacted to it. The students state what they hope to see at the Duty Free Shop e. g. ‘The dress which I admire most. ’“A lot of questions about the place are posed”. E.g. ‘Are there people who will take care of my car while at the parking lot? ’ or ‘Are there toys that my son will play with? ’They state a variety of questions e. g.
‘Are there people who help shoppers around the shelves? ’ Are there cameras which help in keeping security? ’‘Does the place have a dog that scares shoppers? ’They are likely to say that correct use of relative pronouns helps one communicate well. They are likely to say that it helps in joining together two clauses by turning one into a relative clause. E.g. ‘I bought the book. It is very interesting. ’ Into ‘I bought the book which is very interesting. ’Students practice in pairs This is the money.
I promised to give it to you. This is the money which I promised to give to you. I saw the man. He had come here before. “I saw the man who had come here before”. I am giving you the pet. I bought for you last week. I am giving you the pet that I bought for you last week. Students listenThe students walk around, asking and answering these questions. Q. Who made this beautiful dress? A. “The dress maker who sits at the corner of the street”. Q.
What keeps this place cool? A. The fan which hangs in the ceiling. Q. What keeps mice from destroying cereals in the shop? A. The cat that walks all over the place. The students freely give the information on how 1st language affects their use of relative pronouns. The students listen to their recording and correct incorrect use of relative pronouns. They listen to the final comments and raise questions if there is need. It sets the stage for today’s lesson. It gives time for those who come in 5 to 10 minutes late to settle. Prepare them for the visit to the Duty Free Shop at the airport and assist in assessing their language input. Students establish their own stock of questions which they would use if they chose to visit the Duty Free Shops on their own.
Help students check on their use of relative pronouns. Most of the correct usage will come automatically from bright students, but strenuously for those without a good language background. The teacher will deliberately guide them on how to use them. Examining if some students are affected by certain word and sentence forms from their 1st language.
“It is possible that some of them are”. Relate to what they know as far as joining sentences is concerned. The students are able to master the use of relative pronouns from repeated use. Consolidate modelsFurther consolidation of the formsProvide explicit intercultural comparisons. Gives the students a sense of power, having discovered the correct use of relative pronouns. Further discussion and refined feedback. Whole ClassWhole classWhole classWhole classWhole classWhole classIn pairsWhole classInteraction in pairs as the students move around the class roomWhole classPaired/whole classPOTENTIAL PROBLEMSLinguistic, contextual, behavioral, etcCounter StrategyStudents may be slightly embarrassed at having their voices recorded. Role play could be boring, or end early. There might be slight pronunciation problems among some students. Some students could lack confidence to speak in publicEncourage them to relax, and make the recording funMake role playing enjoyable, and use only volunteersUse those who are articulate, then encourage the less articulatePLANNING AND EVALUATIONI will identify the extent of my students’ learning this lesson by looking at the accuracy of their performance during the final role playing.
It is likely that their level of performance and participation will be more refined at the end that the beginning of the lesson. I would identify the effectiveness of my teaching by comparing the students’ performance at the final stages of the lesson to that at the beginning. ACTUAL EVALUATIONI considered the lesson successful. There was a profound improvement in the quality of the students’ participation and performance. However, the lesson would be improved with more student participation than teacher monologue. I learnt that most students are able to participate in the lesson with a little encouragement.
The fact that most of them are adults made them participate with less inhibition. From this lesson, I learnt that a good lesson is the one in which the students take charge of the learning process, rather than rely on the teacher’s wisdom. Title/theme of the Lesson: Relative Pronounsclass _________ group __________School or centre: _______________________ Supervising Teacher: ____________________RATIONALE“What is the current unit of work/theme/topic? ”The lesson is being taken in the context of students visit to the Duty Free Complex. They will ask questions and get answers using relative clauses. “What overall aims are you trying to achieve in this unit/theme/topic? ”The students should be able to combine sentences using relative pronouns by turning one of them into a relative clause. What are the intended outcomes of this lesson?
How does it contribute to the overall aims? The students’ ability to combine sentences using relative pronouns will be improved. Similarly, their competence in aural skills will be enhanced. “How does this relate to the overall language learning needs of the students? ”Ability to combine sentences into one makes one a better and confident communicator. RELATIONSHIP WITH OTHER LESSONSThe students previously learnt how to use pronouns and visited The Shopping Mall.
During the lesson, they will interact in role-playing and later, visit the Duty Free Shops. GENERAL ASSUMPTIONS IN PLANNING THIS LESSON“It is assumed that the students have a good background in the use of pronouns”. This knowledge will help them navigate through relative pronouns comfortably. They are also familiar with the activities of the Duty Free Shops, having visited the Shopping Mall before. Those who missed the visit were updated by their colleagues. ReferencesBerne, M., Intermediate English, London, Oxford University Press: 2006.