The paper "Wind Effect On Smoke Movement In Compartments" is a wonderful example of a literature review on environment studies. This section contains a literature review of previous studies that examined wind effect on fire movement in smoke compartments. Related studies are also reviewed. A bulk of the surveyed literature comprises secondary sources spanning 4 decades of researches on smoke movement. The targeted documents for analysis comprise those that explore the wind effect on smoke movement in compartments. A number of other primary sources have been reviewed that explored wind effects, stack action, and buoyancy pressures, and their influences on smoke movement in compartments with multiple holes.
The premise of this paper is on findings by Huang et al (2008) that examined fire growth in the reduced-scale compartment under windy conditions. The Survey of literature in this section examines investigations by Huang to guide investigations into the wind effect on smoke movement in compartments. Factors influencing Smoke Movement in Compartments In an experimental investigation of fire growth in the reduced-scale compartment, under varied approaching external wind conditions, Huang et al (2009) established that external wind imposes two opposing effects.
First, it promotes combustion inside a department as a result of raising the temperature. Second, it blows away and attenuates the combustible gases within the compartment to decrease the temperature and to quicken its extinction. Similar findings were made in early researches by Tamura (1969), which conducted a computer study on the movement of smoke through the use of a mathematical model of a 20-story building. The results showed the relative influence of a number of factors apart from wind to play a role in the smoke movement in compartments.
As evidenced by earlier researches by Tamura (1969), there has been noteworthy interest in analytical and practical problems on the effects of wind on the movement of smoke in compartments. The study by Huang et al (2009) used fire tunnel experiments within a scaled-down compartment in the presence of external wind in an effort to investigate the processes of fire growth among compartments in windy conditions. In the study, the researchers set the wind velocity to 0.0, 1.5, and 3.0m/s. The location of the fire source was also changed among three locations: downwind corner, upwind corner, and the center.
The findings established that temperature rose and the fire burnt out faster in windy conditions. Chen, Liu, and Chow (2009) also established that ambient wind has a range of influences on the steady temperature of the smoke. The critical speed of the wind is vulnerable to heat loss of the compartment walls. Similar findings were made by Webb (2006), who found that there is no temperature variation between the exterior and the interior of the compartment. The researcher observed that air flows into the compartment from the higher openings and leave through the lower openings, implying that the direction of airflow is downward bound. McGrattan & Hostikka (2010) made similar findings and concluded that in cases where there is a fire within the department, then due to buoyancy, smoke will rise.
This implies that the ambient wind acts against thermal buoyancy. In determining the effects of temperature and wind action, Chen, Liu, and Choe (2009) made critical suggestions that indoor temperature should be assumed to be uniform while ventilation should be neglected since it is small.
The researchers found that the temperature of smoke is related to the firepower, the rate of the airflow, and the heat loss from the compartment (Chen, Liu and Choe 2009). The study by Chen, Liu, and Choe (2009), Webb (2006), and McGrattan & Hostikka (2010) found that opposing wind, thermal buoyancy, and wind action compete inside the fire compartment, where the stronger one determines the direction of the smoke movement.