Evaluation Strategies for Students – Literature review Example

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The paper “ Evaluation Strategies for Students” is a   persuasive variant of literature review on education. A real assessment is defined as an assessment that has something to do with the real world. According to Frey, Schmitt, and Allen (2012), real or authentic evaluations should represent performance in the field, use self- assessment and allow the students to present their work to others and defend it. According to the authors, the concept of authentic assessment has been used as a synonym for real assessment because of the complexity of the term ‘ authentic’ .

The assessment should be formative in such that, it backs classroom instruction, gathers evidence from different activities, supports teaching and learning among students, and reflects local controls, standards, and values. In this context, “ assessment tasks that are interesting, and require complex thought, and require high levels of student participation are authentic” (Frey, Schmitt & Allen, 2012, p. 13) hence, they are realistic. REAL EVALUATION STRATEGIESOn some occasions, students spend a considerable amount of their time studying for exams especially if they had spent their time ineffectively and inefficiently. This largely triggered by the possibility that students tend to focus mainly on the aspects of study material that are not very important because they do not have the proper study skills for the study material or they prepare for a different type of texting format to what was given.

For example, students can prepare inadequately for the open-book exam by bringing a wide range of materials they believe are necessary for the exam. In the process of looking for information on the materials, they waste a lot of time trying to find the relevant information or as they attempt to blend the information.

Similarly, students may memorize the facts and figures in the study materials which can be an impediment since they cannot apply the key ideas. Therefore, teachers should implement real evaluation strategies to prepare students for exams, motivate them, and improve their attitude towards the respective courses. The main evaluation strategies are summative evaluations and formative evaluations. Summative evaluations are assessments that are given occasionally to determine at a specific point in time what students do not know and know.

These are largely associated with standardized tests that form an important aspect of classroom and district programs. This strategy is basically an accountability measure and thus, it is used as a portion of the grading process. The strategies that fall into this category of evaluations are state assessments, interim assessments, chapter or end-of-unit tests, and semester or end- of- term exams. The scores of these assessments are used for students in the form of report card grades and for accountability measures for schools. The evaluations are spread out and they are executed after instructions once a year, monthly or weekly (Garrison & Ehringhaus, 2004).

Accordingly, they serve as tools used in the evaluation of the programs’ effectiveness, school improvement objectives, student placement in given programs, or curriculum alignment. Formative evaluations are different from summative evaluations because they are used as part of instruction/ teaching. Garrison and Ehringhaus (2004) pointed out that the strategy involves incorporating assessments into classroom practice to allow the teachers to obtain the information they need to adjust teaching and learning as they occur. The teacher is informed about the students’ understanding of the lessons and timely changes can be made to improve teaching and learning.

As such, students are better placed to achieve targeted learning goals within a given time frame.    

References

Dillman, D. A. (1978). Mail and Telephone Surveys: The Total Design Method. New York: John Wiley & Sons Publishers.

Frey, B. B., Schmitt, V. L. & Allen, J.P. (2012). Defining Authentic Classroom Assessment. Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation. Vol. 17(2). Pp.1-18

Garrison, C. & Ehringhaus, M. (2004). Formative and Summative Assessments in the Classroom. Retrieved September 8, 2015, from http://schools.nyc.gov/NR/rdonlyres/33148188-6FB5 4593-A8DF-8EAB8CA002AA/0/2010_11_Formative_Summative_Assessment.pdf

Gusky, T. R. (2009). The Teacher as Assessment Leader. California: Solution Tree Press.

Olina, Z. & Sullivan, H. J. (2002). Effects of Classroom Evaluation Strategies on Student Achievement and Attitudes. Educational Technology Research and Development. Vol. 50(3). Pp.61-75

Schroeder, C.M. et al. (2007). A Meta-Analysis of National Research: Effects of Teaching Strategies on Student Achievement in Science in the United States. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. Vol. 44(10). Pp.1436-1460

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