Public Transport in Parramatta and Tourism Industry – Literature review Example

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The paper "Public Transport in Parramatta and Tourism Industry " is a wonderful example of a literature review on tourism.   Local planners and scholars are becoming more and more interested in how tourism contributes to social and economic development. Australian cities have a significant number of tourist arrivals thus local governments are actively promoting tourism. It is noted that mobility is a significant factor for tourists who visit large cities because it is a vital issue that they consider for comfort. Benefits’ spread across various cities in Australia is facilitated by mobility.

Tourism seems to put a constructive externality on public transport, because it offers surplus funding for these services, although it also exerts external expenses on resident users due to the congestion brought about by supply constraints (Albalate & Bel, 2010). This paper, therefore, provides a literature review on public transport in cities like Parramatta in relation to the tourism industry. Literature Review Albalate & Bel (2010), contend that for several years transport that is public has been inferior within the priorities of policy of dispersed cities in Australia as well as other countries.

On the other hand, public transport is progressively more acknowledged as a vital part of a city that is sustainable and functional. Neglect that is the long term has left networks of metropolitan public transport in such cities experiencing service quality that is poor by weakly incorporated services with the restricted capacity to provide a broad range of travel demands for the potential customers. Much theory concerning modern planning states that land-use is the major use of public transport determinant such that developments to the services of public transport will fail on the financial and investment criteria except when they are coupled with general changes to neighboring land-uses.

The outcome is that a lot of existing dispersed contexts, particularly those located within the extensive suburban regions of Australia like Parramatta are not getting the requisite enhancements in services that may possibly help them to outweigh their present levels of the dependence of car and the sustainability, resource, and climate deficits this reliance implies. Cunningham et al, (2003), noted that cities that are designed and developed exclusively to meet particular and restricted imperatives of adults do not necessarily work well for most children.

However, after the development of the children's rights by several member states of the United Nations, considerable literature from various parts of the globe has worked on children's rights to be consulted in the course of urban planning issues and development of suitable mechanisms for doing so. Children in various Western nations are presently being recognized by provincial, local and national governments as a special group with particular needs that need to be articulated in the course of consultation process (Cunningham et al, 2003).

For instance, in New South Wales found in Australia, an outstanding manual for planers of the city was prepared. Consulting with children for example through forums brings about advantages that exceed the obvious intention of informing planners of the city about the genuine needs of the children. According to (Chawla, 2002), it is through opportunities of practicing that children obtain responsible and active citizenship, and Francis and Lorenz (2002) noted that children involved in the planning and designing of their environment yield personal development advantages. Competence, which is the ability to practice control over crucial matters of a person’ s life, is a significant factor of well-being that is psychological.

Studies have shown that children's consultation in the process of environmental planning, and particularly in environments is the potential for supporting competence development, as an imperative mechanism of development of this skill in life (Chawla & Heft, 2002). In fact, Spencer and Woolley (2000) argue that so significant are the psychological advantages of involvement that people overlook the participation of children during their environmental planning at our peril.


Albalate, D. & Bel, G. 2010, Tourism and urban public transport: Holding demand pressure under supply constraints, Tourism Management Vol.31, No. 3, pp 425-433.

Chawla, L. 2002, ‘Insight, creativity, and thoughts on the environment’: integrating children and youth into human settlement development, Environment, and Urbanization, Vol.14, No. 2, pp 11–21.

Chawla, L. and Heft, H. 2002, Children’s competence and the ecology of communities: a functional approach to the evaluation of participation, Journal of Environmental Psychology,

Vol. 22, No.1–2, pp 191–200.

Cunningham, C. et al. 2003, Children, and Urban Regional Planning: Participation in the Public Consultation Process through Story Writing, Children’s Geographies, Vol. 1, No. 2, 201–221.

Francis, M. and Lorenz, R. 2002, Seven realms of children’s participation, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 22(1–2), 157–169.

Gardner, K. & Fitzpatrick, C. 1969, Creating community pride: the Bridgewater-Gagebrook urban renewal program, Commonwealth of Australia.

Kinsella, J. and Caulfield, B. 2011, An Examination of the Quality and Ease of Use of Public Transport in Dublin from a Newcomer’s Perspective, Assistant to the editor Vol. 14, No.1, pp 69.

Spencer, C. and Woolley, H. 2000, Children and the city: a summary of recent environmental psychology research, Child Care, Health and Development, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp 181–197.

Simons, M. 2007, A Cry in the Night, Penguin.

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