Management in Nursing – Literature review Example

The paper "Management in Nursing" is an exceptional example of a literature review on nursing. Relations with subordinates and decision making in any organization including healthcare normally depends on the personality of the leaders and culture of the business. The personality of the leaders determines the management style they employ in performing the various roles in the organization and attend to various situations. One type of management system that can be applied in the healthcare system is bureaucracy. Typical characteristics of bureaucratic organizations are standardization, formal procedures, written communication, and hierarchic procedures. The advantages and disadvantages of this management style are derived from its main characteristics.

Bureaucratic management theory
Advantages
Albrow (1970) states that one notable feature about the bureaucratic management style is that managers handle everything as dictated by the already laid down procedures and/policies. This ensures that high levels of transparency and accountability are maintained in the healthcare setting. This is also to say that bureaucracy minimizes the levels of risk of malpractice that can occur. The efficient procedure and processes designed and maintained ensure a quality output with the lowest level of errors.
Though the decision-making system is complicated and costly, it is more reliable and safeguards the organization and employees against the manager or employee abuse. Bureaucracy is very effective where routine and repetitive tasks are involved. This management theory also benefits from economies of scale hence they are more effective in managing large and complex organizations in which democratic theories could become chaotic.

Disadvantages
According to Wilson (1989), the decision-making systems employed in bureaucratic systems are normally slower and costly. Managers are not free to respond to situations from a flexible angle, for example, using judgmental decisions. If something is not in the policies, they have to inquire from a manager higher than them hence managers are fixed to be policy police officers rather than leaders.

Democratic management theory and business outcomes in a healthcare facility
Business outcomes of a healthcare facility are highly dependent on the competency, productivity and motivational levels of its healthcare workforce. Democratic management theory is important in the creation of a working environment that allows the healthcare providers to consult with the managers of the healthcare facility on how to deal with the various existing and emerging issues. In the modern multicultural world, healthcare facilities must embrace the idea of diversification of the workforce.
Washington (2010), states that a diverse workforce is very essential in ensuring that a healthcare facility is able to attend to patients from across culture. All the patients will be attended to at the same level in terms of data collection, diagnosis, treatment, and continuous care. This eliminates disparities in healthcare in the facility. The effectiveness of a diverse workforce requires a more consultative and motivating environment. Democracy in a healthcare facility motivates its employees to set their own goals and continuously monitor their performance. Deci and Ryan (1985) confirm that internally motivated employees perform better than those who are not.

Personal experience with various management styles
In autocratic supervision, unilateral decision-making is done by the managers and leaders alone. They also maintain all powers and make no consultation with employees regarding their inputs or ideas. From my observation, coercive methods like punishment are used to achieve employee motivation hence low levels of employee motivation are achieved. The effect of this is high employee turn over and absenteeism. Younger employees/generation X workers are more resistant to this type of supervision due to their high expectation for their work environment. Staffs identify with the interests of certain individuals in power than the organization's goals.
Consultative supervision, also known as participative or democratic management styles, is more effective in achieving organizational goals and motivating employees. This is because such management styles allow for high levels of interaction between the management and the employees. In this way, the employees are continuously informed about the various organizational issues that impact on their work.
At this point, the management and the employees are able to come together in problem-solving and decision making. In consultative supervision, a leader is more of a coach who gets motivates and facilitates his team of employees to work together for their own good and betterment as well as that of the organization. Employees are also given a chance to analyze their own performance. This reduces employee turn over and results in high-quality work for longer periods.

Conclusion
Many organizations including the healthcare are expanding in their operation levels and this calls for management theories that allow for high levels of transparency and accountability. Bureaucratic management theory is one such management theory. The high level of formal procedures, hierarchical orders, and written communication minimizes the levels of abuse of office. These characteristics have made this management theory to survive even in this modern world. However, the need for consultative working environments and employee motivation for the better attainment of organizational goals has made it less popular.

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