M-Learning and E-Learning Opportunities – Literature review Example

Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing

The paper "M-Learning and E-Learning Opportunities" is a good example of a literature review on technology. E-learning is the use of electronic devices such as mobile phones, tablets, and computers to access educational content. As noted by K. W. Chuang [2], e-learning is defined as the use of electronic media such as satellite broadcasts, internet, intranets, audio/videotapes, interactive TV, and CD-ROM for the provision of educational programs and the achievement of learning outcomes. Research has shown that besides basic online training, there is an array of tools and equipment that can be used in the provision of e-learning services.

This equipment can either be synchronous such as real-time chat, video/audio conferencing, web-based conferencing, or asynchronous consisting of self-paced courses, email messages with mentors, and electronic discussion groups. With time, e-learning content has evolved from pure text to interactive content. This is a result of advances in communication and multimedia technologies which have made it possible to relay content via the internet. These possibilities increase a user’ s interest in learning. When dealing with multimedia, it is imperative to index content so that it is retrieved efficiently.

It is thus more challenging to deal with multimedia than with pure text [3]. Pena- Rios et al. [4], it is shown that our lifestyles have evolved such that new technology-based learning models have become increasingly available. Human beings possess a natural ability to process information and transform it into knowledge, skills, and behavior. This ability is known as learning. Furthermore, today’ s learning methods that have evolved from traditional learning rely mainly on web-based material such as e-books and mobile learning tools. Learning through mobile technology is termed as m-learning while learning through the web is termed as e-learning. M-learning has grown widely over the past few years due to a number of factors.

First, the technology is cheaper than the one required for e-learning. The technology required form-learning is any mobile device with adequate connectivity. Therefore, almost anyone with a mobile phone has access to m-learning resources. Mobile devices are also widely available and easy to carry around. It is due to these factors that m-learning has developed and continues to grow even in less developed countries. M-Learning In these modern times, human beings rely heavily on phones, computers, and media services in order to function.

These devices provide us with connectivity so that we are able to communicate wherever we are. It can, therefore, be deduced that the world is going mobile since people can communicate with each other wherever they are using portable devices [2]. When e-learning is integrated with these portable devices, it is then known as m-learning. M-learning encompasses the use of these mobile or portable devices in the process of learning [5]. This use of mobile devices in learning is considered a branch of e-learning [6] [7].

M-learning offers the student an extra feature or advantage whereby he can access learning tools from any location using the mobile devices. The integration of mobile technology into the education sector has contributed immensely to the enhancement of flexibility in the education process D. Furio et al. illustrate the various advantages of m-learning [5]. These include the provision of flexibility in education since m-learning is driven by small, portable, and wireless mobile devices. These devices are also inexpensive and can be used anywhere and at any time.

The latest mobile device further enhances the learning process by incorporating wider and touchable screens, built-in digital cameras, and better connectivity [8]. Current mobile devices offer GPRS, Wi-Fi, and 3G which enhance connectivity, and hence enhance the process of m-learning.


A. Charland and B. Leroux, "Mobile application development: web vs. native," Communications of the ACM, vol. 54, pp. 49-53, 2011.

[2] K.-W. Chuang, "Mobile technologies enhance the e-learning opportunity," American Journal of Business Education (AJBE), vol. 2, pp. 49-54, 2011.

[3] Z. Dongsong and J. F. Nunamaker, Jr., "A natural language approach to content-based video indexing and retrieval for interactive e-learning," Multimedia, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 6, pp. 450-458, 2004.

[4] A. Pena-Rios, V. Callaghan, M. Gardner, and M. J. Alhaddad, "Towards the Next Generation of Learning Environments: An InterReality Learning Portal and Model," in Intelligent Environments (IE), 2012 8th International Conference on, 2012, pp. 267-274.

[5] D. Furió, S. GonzáLez-Gancedo, M. Juan, I. Seguí, and M. Costa, "The effects of the size and weight of a mobile device on an educational game," Computers & Education, vol. 64, pp. 24-41, 2013.

[6] R. Deegan and P. Rothwell, "A classification of m-learning applications from a usability perspective," Journal of the Research Center for Educational Technology, vol. 6, pp. 16-27, 2010.

[7] V. Garaj, "m-Learning in the education of multimedia technologists and designers at the university level: A user requirements study," Learning Technologies, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 3, pp. 24-32, 2010.

[8] S. Martin, R. Gil, E. San Cristobal, G. Diaz, M. Castro, J. Peire, et al., "Middleware for the development of context-aware applications inside m-Learning: Connecting e-learning to the mobile world," in Computing in the Global Information Technology, 2009. ICCGI'09. Fourth International Multi-Conference on, 2009, pp. 217-222.

[9] E. Al-Masri and Q. H. Mahmoud, "MLDF: Discovering Mobile Learning Content using Mobile Devices," 2012.

[10] P. Zhong and G. Zheng, "Research on the application of M-Learning based on intelligent mobile devices," in IT in Medicine and Education (ITME), 2011 International Symposium on, 2011, pp. 239-243.

[11] A. Anani, "M-learning in review: Technology, standard and evaluation," Journal of Communication and Computer, vol. 5, pp. 1-6, 2008.

[12] P. B. MUYINDA, "Deploying and Utilizing Learning Objects on Mobile Phones," Unpublished PhD Dissertation, Uganda, Kampala, 2010.

[13] S. Mahamad, M. N. Ibrahim, and S. M. Taib, "M-learning: a new paradigm of learning mathematics in Malaysia," arXiv preprint arXiv:1009.1170, 2010.

[14] M. Hashemi, M. Azizinezhad, V. Najafi, and A. J. Nesari, "What is Mobile Learning? Challenges and Capabilities," Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 30, pp. 2477-2481, 2011.

[15] M. F. Costabile, A. De Angeli, R. Lanzilotti, C. Ardito, P. Buono, and T. Pederson, "Explore! possibilities and challenges of mobile learning," in Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 2008, pp. 145-154.

[16] C. Boja and L. Batagan, "Analysis of m-learning applications quality," WSEAS Transactions on Computers, vol. 8, pp. 767-777, 2009.

[17] R. Shariffudin, C. Julia-Guan, T. Dayang, N. Mislan, and M. Lee, "Mobile Learning Environments for Diverse Learners in Higher Education," International Journal of Future Computer and Communication, vol. 1, pp. 32-35, 2012.

[18] S. Casey, "The new literacies of mobile learning," Concordia University, 2009.

[19] M. Sarrab, L. Elgamel, and H. Aldabbas, "Mobile learning (m-learning) and educational environments," International Journal of Distributed and Parallel Systems, vol. 3, pp. 31-38, 2012.

[20] B. Sattler, I. Spyridakis, N. Dalal, and J. Ramey, "The learning experience: A literature review of the role of mobile technology," in Professional Communication Conference (IPCC), 2010 IEEE International, 2010, pp. 38-45.

[21] C. Ciurea and P. Pocatilu, "Designing M-Learning Applications for Collaborative Virtual Environments," International Journal of Education and Information Technologies, vol. 6, pp. 149-156, 2012.

[22] K. B. Lee and R. Salman, "The Design and Development of Mobile Collaborative Learning Application Using Android," Journal of Information Technology and Application in Education, vol. 1, pp. 1-8, 2012.

[23] A. Holzinger, P. Treitler, and W. Slany, "Making Apps Useable on Multiple Different Mobile Platforms: On Interoperability for Business Application Development on Smartphones," in Multidisciplinary Research and Practice for Information Systems, ed: Springer, 2012, pp. 176-189.

[24] Q. Zhang, J. Liu, and X. Li, "Well-posedness research of mobile learning devices," in Consumer Electronics, Communications and Networks (CECNet), 2012 2nd International Conference on, 2012, pp. 1497-1500.

[25] K. Mandula, S. R. Meda, D. K. Jain, and R. Kambham, "Implementation of Ubiquitous Learning System Using Sensor Technologies," in Technology for Education (T4E), 2011 IEEE International Conference on, 2011, pp. 142-148.

Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
Contact Us