The paper “ Computer Chess - Recent Developments, Support Systems, Programs” is a breathtaking variant of literature review on information technology. With the number of people interested in chess games around the world increasing and the game gaining popularity, the importance of having developed chess game systems in place is a major concern in the industry. Innovations to computer chess are becoming open-ended and demand for the same is on the increase. Not many studies have been devoted to identifying computer chess but efforts in the 21st century are on a high.
This paper will examine the developments of computer chess highlighted and discussed to give an overview of the topic. IntroductionThe idea to develop a chess-playing machine dates back early in the eighteenth century. Around late 1769, the chess-playing automaton named The Turk became hugely famous before exposed as being a hoax. Before the original development of digital computing, many serious trials basing on automata, for instance, El Ajedrecista of 1912 developed too complex and limited programs. They could not be used effectively for playing full games of computer chess (Dylan 2006; Robinson 1999, p.
1396-1398). The field of mechanical chess research fades away until the advent of the late century digital computer in the early 1950s. Since then, chess enthusiasts, as well as computer engineers, build the programs with increasing degrees of success including chess-playing machines and programs. This paper is a literature review of computer chess detailing relevant information on the game and its development in the computer world. Main bodyComputer chess definition Computer chess refers to computer architecture, which encompasses hardware and software making it possible to play chess autonomously precisely without human guidance (Dylan 2006; Robinson 1999, p.
1396-1398). Computer chess generally occurs as solo entertainment, which allows players to practice as well as amuse themselves especially when there are no human opponents available (Dirk 2000, p. 1385-1389; Bruce 2004, p. 442-447; Hsu 2002, p. 15). Computer chess acts also as aids to chess analysis, as research providing insights into human cognition and for competitions in computer chess. Computer chess recent developmentsChess-playing computers are currently accessible to the average consumer. From the early '70s to date, dedicated chess computers available for purchase have been many.
There are several chess engines for instance Fruit, Crafty, and GNU Chess, which are downloadable directly from the Internet at least free (Stiller 1996; Monroe 1989, p. 197-250). These engines are particularly able to play a chess game that, when running particularly on an up-to-date personal computer, they defeat most master players in tournament conditions (Robinson 1999, p. 1396-1398). Top programs, for instance, the closed-source programs Fritz or Shredder or the open-source Stockfish program have surpassed many world champion players at blitz as well as short time controls.
As of late 2008 in October, Rybka a top-rated in CCRL, CSS, SSDF, CEGT, and WBEC rating has won many computer chess tournaments recently such as 2006 Dutch Open Championship, CCT 8 and 9, the 15th World Championship and the 16th IPCCC (Bruce 2004, p. 442-447; Hsu 2002, p. 15; Barbara 1998). The developer of a computer chess system is a combination of a number of basic implementation issues (Newborn 2006; Monroe 1989, p. 197-250). They include Board representation (the representation of a single position in data structures), Search techniques (the identification of possible moves and the selection of the highly promising ones for later examination), and Leaf evaluation (the evaluation of a board position value).
Barbara, J 1998, A program to play chess end games, Stanford University Department of Computer Science, Technical Report CS 106, Stanford Artificial Intelligence Project Memo AI-65
Bruce, D 2004, “The Effects of Speed on Skilled Chess Performance” Psychological Science, Vol. 15, No. 7 (Jul. 2004), pp. 442-447
Dirk, F 2000, “Molecular Computation: RNA Solutions to Chess Problem” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 97, No. 4 (Feb. 15, 2000), pp. 1385-1389
Dylan, L 2006, “Once Again, Machine Beats Human Champion at Chess” New York Times, from, http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/05/crosswords/chess/05cnd-chess.html?_r=1
Hans, J 1998, “A chronology of computer chess and its literature” Artificial Intelligence, Volume 10, Issue 2, April 1998, p. 201-214
Hsu, F 2002, Behind Deep Blue: Building the Computer that Defeated the World Chess Champion, Princeton University Press, p.15
Monroe, M 1989, “Computer Chess: Ten Years of Significant Progress” Advances in Computers, Volume 29, 1989, Pages 197-250
Monroe, M 2008, “Recent Progress in Computer Chess” Advances in Computers, Volume 18, 1979, p. 59-117.
Newborn, M 2006, Theo and Octopus at the 2006 World Championship for Automated Reasoning Programs, Seattle, Washington, August 18, 2006
Robinson, L 1999, “Tournament Competition Fuels Computer Chess”, Science, New Series, Vol. 204, No. 4400 (Jun. 29, 1999), pp. 1396-1398
Stiller, L 1996, “Multilinear Algebra and Chess Endgames”, Berkeley, California: Mathematical Sciences Research Institute, Games of No Chance, MSRI Publications, Volume 29, http://www.msri.org/publications/books/Book29/files/stiller.pdf, retrieved 21 June 2009