The paper "A Human Behavior in Fire Building" is a remarkable example of a literature review on social science. Human Generic Behaviour Concepts in human development suggest that development is systematic changes and continuities that occur from conception to death (Louw, 1998, p. 3). For instance, according to Sigelman & Rider (2011), changes are systematic because these changes are orderly, patterned, and relatively enduring. Similarly, it involves continuities because some people remain the same or continue to behave in a similar manner that reflects his or her past behavior (p. 2). Although not all changes are necessary as seen development, most changes occurring in human beings during their lifetime are developments (Louw, 1998, p. 3; Damon & Lerner, 2006, p. 22).
In psychology, changes in behavior and associate processes such as intending, thinking, perceiving, and feeling are positive developments that are based on cognitive processes (O’ Donnell & Yamauchi, 2006, p. 23). For instance, panic is caused by the belief that an imminent danger exists which usually results in safety-seeking behaviors or avoidance of feared situations (O’ Donnell & Yamauchi, 2006, p. 23). A person’ s biological make-up, psychological characteristics, and response to social demands are called human adaptation (Asford et al, 2009, p. 8).
Human adaptation in the sense that humans have the capacity to adjust to their material environment. For instance, humans are able to live and survive in extreme cold, heat, and high altitude. Moreover, some of these biological adaptations are in the genetic makeup of a particular population such as the shape of the human body. In contrast, physiological adaptations are short-term changes such as a person who used to live a peaceful community will undergo some physiological responses when transferred to a noisy city (Haviland, et al, 2007, p. 9).
Culture according to Muehlenbein (2010) is the primary component of the human adaptive strategy as there are a number of cases showing culture as responsible for human genetic diversity (p. 582). For instance, a human’ s ability to survive most conditions is due to considerable flexibility in cultural behavior. According to Nanda & Warms (2010), human adaptation is “ biocultural” as it involves biological and cultural dimensions such as shown by man’ s unique evolution that resulted in the development of its biological structure and the human brain that can invent and learn.
Cultural adaptation, on the other hand, enables man to deal with problems almost instantly or adapt solutions from other cultures (p. 8). Human actions and their environment are connected as the latter can place limits on human behavior. For instance, people are becoming what they are at a given point in time not because of their knowledge and free will but due to pressure of circumstances that limit their choices -i. e. fire, flooding, stranded, etc. (Ashford et al, 2009, p. 16). Similarly, a person’ s behavior is subject to modification as the occurrence of behavior affects the environment in which it occurs (Miltenberger, 2008, p. 2).
For instance, when a student raises his hand in class, the teacher reacts by calling him or her. Similarly, when a person runs towards the stairs because there is a fire somewhere on the floor, others who saw him will also run towards the stairs. According to Hergenhahn (2008), the source of one’ s action is not coming from the person himself but in the environment. Moreover, in order to understand how environmental events affect behavior better, one must understand that desires, goals, intentions, and others are replaced by entirely different orientations when unfamiliar environmental events occur (p. 15).
Although individual behavior is affected by factors within himself such as instincts, personality traits, feelings, and others, his external environment such as weather conditions, the information conveyed, and other people’ s behavior affects him. In other words, the environment acts as a stimulus, which an individual responsibility. However, not all people respond the same way as their behavior is determined by other factors such as age, sex, education, intelligence, personality, physical characteristics, experience, values, family, and cultural background (Mishra, 2008, p. 230).
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