Recruitment and Selection of Warehouse Manager for Best Pearls – Literature review Example

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The paper “ Recruitment and Selection of  Warehouse Manager for Best Pearls ” is an engrossing variant of literature review on education. In the U. S., school reform has been a focus for many years. As in many states, the position of superintendent in schools has evolved over the years. High-stakes testing and accountability evolved into systemic reform measures. The public began to demand educational reform and change. In response, researchers began to examine the approaches to leadership taken by superintendents and the ways they act as change agents. The focus of superintendent roles in the 1950 and 1960 eras moved from that of a managerial role to more of a leadership role.

Educators delved into a demanding task of establishing the relationship between leadership and student achievement. The public began to criticize public education and consequently the work of the superintendent. Researchers have established that school leadership and governance have a direct impact on the academic performance of the students. Gradually an array of research-established knowledge emerged. In regards to Calhoun, K. (2004). the former top-down model of the superintendency was no longer wanted.

Superintendents must work with the people in collaboration rather than make demands. President George W. Bush signed into law the federal “ No Child Left Behind” legislation (NCLB). The law attempted to create a level playing field for all children in public schools, by improving the accountability for results: emphasizing local control and flexibility, which helped to expand parental choice, and rewarding effective and successful programs. Carrying out the NCLB mandate to improve student achievement in public schools is critical in the role of school districts. Superintendents were perceived as agents of needed change transforming their district by raising student achievement for all students. Researchers have been able to describe the roles played by the superintendents in effecting curricular and instructional changes (Yelland, Nicola, Maidenhead, 2008).

District-level superintendents have administrative responsibilities and executive oversight with the schools, students, and educational services in their localities. Their responsibilities include assuring the fiscal viability of the district, keeping the district in compliance with government regulations, hiring and supervising building-level administrators, maintaining good public relations within the community, and working with district trustees. More importantly, superintendents are educational leaders whose first responsibility is the education of the pupils in their schools.

They are ultimately responsible for assuring the implementation of sound educational practices which lead to measurable student achievement. Superintendents need to engage in efforts to effect changes in curriculum and instruction that improve student outcomes. Significance of the studyAccording to Reeves (2002), it is part of a superintendent’ s responsibility to look after the day-to-day execution of all policy matters in learning institutions as required by local, state, and federal educational mandates. This means that even now the most basic role of a superintendent is the daily administration of the school district.

This can range from overseeing the day-to-day operations of the district to attending to the administrative needs of the district. Helping the district implement the proposed changes and reforms is part of the work undertaken by the superintendents.            


6.0. References

Bealer, D. (2010). Promoting Student Achievement: A case study of change actions employed by an Urban School Superintendent. (Doctoral Dissertation). USC Rossier School of Education.

Bredeson, P. W. & Kose, B. W. (2007). Responding to the education reform agenda: A study of school superintendents’ instructional leadership. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 15(5), 1-10.

Calhoun, K. (2004). Superintendent Change Leadership Strategies Associated with Successful Technology Integration in Public School Districts. La Verne, CA: University of La Verne.

Cubberley, E. P. (2010). The history of education. Educational practice and progress considered as a phase of the development and spread of western civilization. Coughlin and Mifflin.

Fielder, R. (2005). ESAs and leadership development: History, research, and one agency’s experience. Perspectives: A Journal of Research and Opinions about Educational Service Agencies, 11, 1-12.

Fullan, M. G. (2003). The moral imperative of school leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Houston, P.D. (2007). From custodian to the conductor. School Administrator, 64(3), pp. 28-35.

Hoyle, J. R., Bjork, L.G., Collier, B., & Glass, T. (eds.) (2005). The superintendent as CEO: Standards-based performance. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Kowalski, T. J. (2001). The future of local school governance: Implications for board members and superintendents. In C. Brunner and L. G. Björk (Eds.), The new superintendency (183–201). Oxford, UK: JAI, Elsevier Science.

Kowalski, T. J. (2004). School public relations: A new agenda. In T.J. Kowalski (Ed.), Public relations in schools (3rd Ed.) (3-29), Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill, Prentice-Hall.

Kowalski, T. J. (2005). The school superintendent: Theory, practice, and cases. US: Sage Publishers.

Yelland, Nicola, Maidenhead (2008).: Rethinking Learning in Early Childhood Education. McGraw-Hill International (UK) Ltd,

Marzano, R. J. (2005). School Leadership That Works: From Research to Results. Alexandria, VA, USA: Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development, pp. 16-17.Retrieved from

Melton, A. (2009). Leadership Matters: A mixed-methods study of South Carolina

Reeves, D. B. (2002). The daily disciplines of leadership. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Shannon, S., & Bylsma, P. (2004). Characteristics of improved school districts: Themes from Research. Retrieved from

U.S. Department of Education. (2002, November, 7). Fact sheet on the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001.

Waters, T. J., & Marzano, R. J. (2006). School district leadership that works: The effect of superintendent leadership on student achievement. Denver, CO: Midcontinent Research for Education and Learning.

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