Evaluation of Elite Sports Program – Literature review Example

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The paper "Evaluation of Elite Sports Program" is a good example of a literature review on sports and recreation. DMSP Framework According to Holt (2008), the theory of Development Model of Sports Participation (DMSP) proves that youth participation in sport provides them with an opportunity to be physically active and this plays an important role in enhancing their psychological development. Additionally, youth sports programs are essential in promoting motor skills learning which form the foundations for future sports stars and recreational adult sports participation. Therefore, the DMSP provides an outline with pathways that are aimed at providing continued support for youth participation, psychosocial development, and health benefits through sports.

The model proposes three phrases in relation to sports participation and they include the sampling phrase which is done between 6 to 12 years of age, the specialization phrase, and the investment phrase. At the sampling stage children are given an opportunity to sample different sports hence at this phrase emphasis should be made on how exciting it is to participate in sports. In the specialization phrase which is done between the ages of 13 to 15 years, the number of sports that children participate in are reduced and this enables children to develop specific skills required in a given sport.

Finally, the investment stage occurs when children attain the age of 16 years. In this phrase, children focus and become committed to a single sport Training injuries According to Hackfort and Tenenbaum (2006), early specialization can have negative consequences on the athlete's physical health. The excessive training during specialization and investment stage can increase the athlete's risk of over-training injuries. Gould (2006) emphasizes that early specialization in sport increases burnout and this has long term negative effects on the athlete's physical health.

According to his study findings, youth athletes who specialized in a specific sport had a higher probability of suffering from physical injures as compared to those who didn’ t specialize in any sport. His study was composed of 154 athletes who were on average aged 13 years. Gould noted that those athletes who had specialized in specific sport reported more physical injuries in comparison to the unspecialized ones. Slobounov (2008) argues that injuries are common for athletes who begin to participate in a given sport at a tender age.  


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Farrow, D., Baker, J., & MacMahon, C (2008). Developing Sport Expertise. Oxon: Routledge.

Garrett, W., & Kirkendall, D.(2007). Exercise and Sport Science. Sydney: Wolters Kluwer Health.

Gill, D., & Lavon, W. (2008). Physiological Dynamics of Sport and Exercise. Mitcham: Human Kinetics.

Gould, D.(2006). Sports Specializtion. Successful Sports Parenting, 1(1), 1-3.

Hackfort, D.,& Tenenbaum, G.(2006). Essential Processes for Attaining Peak Performance. London: Meyer and Meyer

Hol, N.(2008), Positive Youth Development through Sport. London: Routledge.

Huber, J.(2012).Applying Educational Psychology in Sports. Mitcham: Human Kinetics.

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Moran, A.(2006). Sport and Exercise Psychology. Oxon: Routledge.

Murphy, S. (2012) The Oxford Handbook of Sports Performance. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Rowland, T.(2011). The Athlete’s Clock. Mitcham: Human Kinetics.

Slobounov, S.(2008). Injuries in Athletics. London: Springer

Stafford, I.(2010). Coaching Children in Sport. London: Taylor & Francis

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