The paper "Evaluating Teaching Effectiveness" is a wonderful example of a literature review on education. Student Participation Rubric – Lesson- Water Cycle - Environmental Sciences ( Years 7-9) Points Outstanding 4 Very Good 3 Good 2 Average 1 Punctuality Responds promptly to all queries and discussions promptly, with at least one response per activity Responds when the activity is still on to most queries and discussions, with at least one response per current activity Responds at the end of the activity to queries discussions Responds after repeated queries in his/her direction, after the end of the activity Succinctness & Collaboration Responds with insight Allows chace for others Considers other views Responds very well to other views, with insight, also considers other perspectives Response when prompted, tends to dominate or degrade other perspectives Responds inadequately often, with little new role or contribution Research/ Inquiry Evidence Expresses analysis and synchronization of materials, includes other mates views and cites properly, with brief, relevant points Expresses analysis and synchronization of materials, includes original thoughts and cites properly with relevant points Comparatively lesser analysis & synchronization with little proof of deep reflection Voluminous material not always relevant Little proof of analysis or synchronization or reflection on the topic with little or irrelevant material Expression and communication One or no mistakes in writing, clear and concise Few mistakes that are insignificant Some significant mistakes, not precise, lengthy Five or more significant mistakes Total Points Adapted from http: //www. docstoc. com/docs/69783389/Effort-and-Participation-Rubric Reasons for Choosing the above Criteria The purpose of assessments is to help both teachers and students to identify their current status of knowledge regarding a particular topic, the direction in which they have to progress, and how best they can do it.
Teachers’ Guide to Assessment (2011) defines assessment as “ the process of gathering and interpreting evidence to make judgments about student learning. It is the crucial link between learning outcomes, content and teaching, and learning activities. ” (p.
6). Furthermore, it states that designing challenging assessment tasks and tools is the best way for a teacher to prepare for the comprehension and delivery of an effective and original assessment procedure (p. 4). Gore, Amosa, Griffiths, Parkes & Ellis (2009, p. 2) have studied the ways to improve assessment procedures with particular relevance to social studies. The researchers point out that, most of the complaints from students on assessment design concern a mismatch between the stated curricular goals and the provided teaching, confusing expectations which are too high or low and projects/tasks that are hardly significant for students’ future (Boud, 2009; Boud & Falchikov, 2006; Knight, 2002; Shavelson, 2007 cited in Gore, Amosa, Griffiths, Parkes & Ellis 2009, p.
2). In order to avoid these pitfalls and ensure a more authentic evaluation process, both formative and summative types of assessments (adapted from Teachers’ Guide to Assessment (2011) for the unit ‘ Water-Cycle’ which is a part of Environmental Studies. The Quality Teaching Model, (also referred to by Teachers’ Guide to Assessment, 2011) constitutes three aspects – Intellectual Quality, Quality Learning Environment, and Significance (as given here) – is widely followed in Australia, and has been the basis on which the above criteria for evaluation has been framed (Gore, Amosa, Griffiths, Parkes & Ellis 2009, p.
2). Source: Gore, Amosa, Griffiths, Parkes & Ellis 2009, p. 2. Three Aspects of the Quality Teaching model Intellectual Quality Quality Learning Environment Significance DK - Deep knowledge DU - Deep understanding PK - Problematic knowledge HOT - Higher-order thinking M - Metalanguage SC – Substantive communication EQC - Explicit quality criteria HE - High expectations SD - Student direction BK - Background knowledge CK - Cultural knowledge KI - Knowledge integration C - Connectedness N - Narrative In order to ensure that the teaching is effective, and the quality of teaching is high, the above aspects should be carefully incorporated in classroom management practices.
The criteria chosen to evaluate effective teaching in above includes many of the above aspects, thus aiding better teaching. Firstly, by kindling interest in the students regarding the unit and encouraging them to collect materials on the subject, the teacher transmits the message that there is a high expectation (HE) from them and also facilitates the development of background knowledge (BK) and ensures right the efforts of the student's direction is on right track (SD). Secondly, the teacher ensures deep knowledge (DK) and deep understanding (DU) in learners by explaining the lesson, making them read loud, testing their understanding orally, encouraging them to ask pertinent questions, and explaining difficult points, like for example, how the temperature plays an important role in the process of the water cycle. Group activities are included to bring forth connectedness (C); by initiating group discussions on the importance of water conservation, and the role played by trees and vegetation in precipitating rain.
Furthermore, discussions on how global warming and temperature changes have disrupted rain patterns all over the world help the learners integrate the knowledge of what is learned to the world outside. Simple activities conducted by the teacher to show evaporation, and condensation will also help students comprehend the connection between science subjects and environmental events (KI).