Cybercrime - Investigating High-Technology Computer Crime – Literature review Example

Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing

The paper “ Cybercrime - Investigating High-Technology Computer Crime” is an impressive variant of literature review on information technology. The advent of computer and internet technology has led to sophistication in the manner through which crime is perpetrated. Cybercrime, as it is famously known takes the form of any act of crime that involves a computer and or a network in its perpetration. In describing the acts of cybercrime, Moore (2011) in Cybercrime: Investigating High-Technology Computer Crime describes it as a type of crime in which a computer is used as an instrument in the execution of a criminal purpose.

Thus, computer technology is at the center of focus in this kind of crime as cybercrime cannot be carried out without its involvement. The network further enhances the opportunities for these activities by facilitating the criminality involved in these heinous deeds via the connection properties it possesses which can be hacked into at any moment. Moore (2011) further iterates that cybercrime is unique a unique type of crime in that the evidence of these activities usually remains in the computer machines or the networks involved.

The rate of crime has been accelerated further since the rollout of advanced technologies, such as smartphones and personal digital assistants. Cybercrime covers a range of deeds, including online harassment, identity theft, malicious attacks, spamming, and the spread of viruses. This essay looks into the growing significance of analysis, validation, and presentation of cyber forensic data with a shallow analysis of the types of cybercrime (Moore, 2011). How Crimes are Committed in the Cyber EnvironmentIn order to understand cyber forensic analyses better, it is important to know the definitions of each of these attacks perpetrated on the internet.

For instance, the process of unauthorized entry to a computer system is referred to as hacking. Maras (2012) states that the process is facilitated through software tools and tutorials that are readily available on the internet for all. Cracking is defined as unauthorized entry and destruction of information contained in individual or organisational computers. The destruction may be aimed at sabotaging of organizations through criminal intents such as a denial of service. In this case, the perpetrator seeks to refuse users of these networks the ability to access and use available information for their benefit.

This includes directing a very high bundle of traffic, thereby overwhelming the system and denying service to legitimate requests. Another class of service denial involves malicious attacks from attacked computers through distributive network access (Maras, 2012). Malicious software such as botnets viruses, Trojans, and spyware has been increasingly used to launch attacks on computers in a bid to disable them. According to Ponemon (2011), it is a fact that each and every computer user has experienced malicious attacks of some form.

These criminal attacks are responsible for up to 31% of the data breaches being currently experienced by the global community. Ciampa (2010) describes computer viruses as software designed to replicate and spread from one computer to another via networks and portable storage devices. These programs disrupt the functionality of a computer through overwhelming processes that deny the user the right to usage. The worms like viruses replicate and use massive computer resources, although they are standalone in terms of the way they operate and in their results.

Ciampa (2010) also defines trojans as software that appears like legitimate software but, in reality, it consists of hidden functions that eventually get into the system and cause mayhem. Spyware, on the other hand, is software that enables spies to check on a computer owned by the targeted individual or organization. This software peddles more sensitive information like passwords and cash transaction details which are meant to be confidential. These include widely used sniffers and key loggers that analyze networks and extract keystroke login information respectively.

These botnets are spread with the intention of taking control of the targeted networks and computers through malicious bot codes. These are more dangerous in that they can be used for remote manipulation of individual computers and networks (Ciampa, 2010).

References

Ec-Council. (2010). Computer Forensics: Investigating Data and Image Files [With Access Code]. New York: Cengage Learning.

Ciampa, M. (2010). Security Awareness: Applying Practical Security in Your World. Massachusetts: Cengage Learning.

ComputerForensics1. (2006). Computer Forensic Ethics. Retrieved April 20, 2013, from http://www.computerforensics1.com/computer-forensic-ethics.html

Craiger, J. P. (2012). Computer Forensics Procedures and Methods. In H. Bigdoli, Handbook of Information Security. John Wiley & Sons.

Cyberforensics. (2001). What this Site and Cyber Forensics are All About. Retrieved April 19, 2013, from http://www.cyber-forensic-analysis.com/

Forensic Focus. (2013). Computer Forensics Reports - Sample Reports, Articles & Links. Retrieved April 21, 2013, from http://www.forensicfocus.com/computer-forensics-reports

Garnett, B. (2010, August 25). Introduction to Report Writing for Digital Forensics. Retrieved April 21, 2013, from http://computer-forensics.sans.org/blog/2010/08/25/intro-report-writing-digital-forensics/

Haggerty, J. (2013). Computer Forensics Process. Retrieved April 26, 2013, from Liverpool John Moores University: http://www.cms.livjm.ac.uk/cmpjhagg/forprocess.htm

Hart, S. V. (2012). Forensic Examination of Digital Evidence: A Guide for Law Enforcement. New Jersey: U.S. Department of Justice.

Information Security and Forensics Society (ISFS). (2004). Best Practices. Computer Forensics, 1-64.

Information technology Short Takes. (2007, July). Tutorial - Computer Forensics Process for Beginners. Retrieved April 26, 2013, from Information technology Short, Takes: http://www.shortinfosec.net/2008/07/tutorial-computer-forensics-process-for.html

Kanellis, P., Kiountouzis, E., Kolokotronics, N., & Martakos, D. (2006). Digital Crime And Forensic Science in Cyberspace. London: Idea Group Inc (IGI).

Karmakar. (2010). Forensic Medicine And Toxicology: Oral, Practical And Mcq, 3rd Edition. Kolkata: Academic Publishers.

Katz, E. (2012). Cyber Forensics: The Fascinating World of Digital Evidence. Purdue Cyber Forensics Lab.

Kolde, J. (2012). Windows Forensic Analysis Toolkit. Massachusetts: Elsevier.

Kranacher, M.-J., Riley, R., & Wells, J. T. (2012). Forensic Accounting and Fraud Examination. John Wiley & Sons.

Laykin, E. (2013). Investigative Computer Forensics: The Practical Guide for Lawyers, Accountants, Investigators, and Business Executives. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Maras, M.-H. (2012). Computer Forensics: Cybercriminals, Laws, and Evidence. London: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Marcella, A. J., & Greenfield, R. S. (2002). Cyber Forensics: A Field Manual for Collecting, Examining, and Preserving Evidence of Computer Crimes. New York: Auerbach Publications.

Marcella, A. J., & Guillossou, F. (2012). Cyber Forensics: From Data to Digital Evidence. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.

Moore, R. (2011). Cybercrime: Investigating High-Technology Computer Crime. Oxford: Elsevier.

Nelson, B. (2010). Guide to computer forensics and investigations. Massachusetts: Cengage Learning.

Ponemon, L. (2011, March 8). Cost of a Data Breach Climbs Higher. Retrieved April 18, 2013, from http://www.indefenseofdata.com/2011/03/ponemon-cost-of-a-data-breach-climbs-higher/

Santanam, R., & Sethumadhavan, M. (2011). Cyber Security, Cyber Crime and Cyber Forensics: Applications and Perspectives. Hershey PA: Idea Group Inc (IGI).

Shinder, D. L., & Cross, M. (2008). Scene of the Cybercrime. Massachusetts: Syngress.

Siegel, L. J. (2011). Criminology: The Core. California: Cengage Learning.

The International Association of Computer Investigative Specialists. (2013). Our Mission. Retrieved April 15, 2013, from The International Association of Computer Investigative Specialists: https://www.iacis.com/

The National Fraud Center, Inc. (2000). The Growing Global Threat of Economic and Cyber Crime. National Fraud Center, Inc. – a LEXIS-NEXIS Company.

Turvey, B. E. (2012). Criminal Profiling: An Introduction to Behavioral Evidence Analysis. California: Academic Press.

Wee, C. K. (2012). Analysis of hidden data in the NTFS file system. Retrieved April 20, 2013, from Edith Cowan University: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:15Z3XSYKIZAJ:www.forensicfocus.com/downloads/ntfs-hidden-data-analysis.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESibCdR5xaxdcY0aHlIyTGj6HA3vJ0JylGQESyYw-qjr0lM-i0j54eP3bqfzFR9WHGtdf_nrB7addyskGvY6zy2mey5XCF1VB1YR4dsq9SuDm76QJ

Zawoad, S., & Hasan, R. (n.d.). Cloud Forensics: A Meta-Study of Challenges, Approaches, and Open Problems. Cloud Forensics.

Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
Contact Us