The paper "Architectural History and Theory: Urbanism and the City" is a great example of a literature review on architecture. Urbanism is the way in which inhabitants of town and cities interact with the environment set up, and it is said to be the movement of people from rural to urban centers (Ballon & Jackson 2007 pg. 23). Many architects designers and socialists are taking much of their time currently to understand the way people live in densely populated areas. To understand urbanism well as a mode of life, Louis Wirth argued that urbanism should not be looked at as just a corporal object of the city.
One should go beyond the border and look at how developments in the transport and communication sector have immensely stretched the urban way of living past the boundaries in the urban itself (Biles 2002 pg. 185). Paul Knox in his book Cities and design refers to one of the numerous modern urbanisms as "aestheticization of everyday life". Alex Krieger gave an insight into how urban constructors work. He illustrates ten sectors that practically show that urbanism had taken place.
“ The bridge connecting planning and architecture, a form-based category of public policy, the architecture of the city, urban design as restorative urbanism, urban design as an art of placemaking, urban design as smart growth, the infrastructure of the city, urban design as landscape urbanism, urban design as visionary urbanism, and urban design as community advocacy or doing no harm (Paul 2010 pg. 10). The realistic methodology to urbanism encourages deed above consideration. Pragmatism stresses a culture of annexation inside cities where conflict and divergence work to develop stronger realities (Paul 2010 pg. 45).
The spirit of pragmatism rests in current everyday time in the urban zone as chief logical components. Although the manifestation has been in use for a long time, it is not a permanent model. Pragmatism has experienced several changes with the need of developing an advance structure of the urban center. Those vicissitudes are of essence towards development and improvements of cities and rudimentary subjects of pragmatism which can be practical to urbanism development and improvement. Several architects have attempted to establish cities of modern standards with varying success. But the one who achieved much was Robert Moses.
Through his hard work and resilience, he set a way that allows New York City to be one of the modern states in the world. He came up with various ideas as regards how the city should be structured, how houses and the entire infrastructure should look like (Ballon & Jackson 2007 pg. 43) He even built most of them, and it can be looked in from his work below. Robert Moses is credited as the builder of the modern New York City, and not that he established it, but he made it the city that it is at present.
This is a revolutionary process that took place in the mid-20th century, and this man was able to convert the city from old look to become one of the modern and most attractive centers in the world (Ballon & Jackson 2007 pg. 13). He contributes a lot in urban planning, and one famous achievement he achieved was parkways network in New York. This is road and streets designed in the city which serve the people, also gives direction to them on roads which commercial trucks or the ones for the public are not allowed to use.
Biles, R. (2002). The human tradition in urban America. Wilmington, Del, SR Books.
Tymieniecka, A.-T. (2010). Art Inspiring Transmutations of Life. Berlin, Springer Netherland.
Ballon, H. & Jackson, K. T. (eds.) 2007. Robert Moses and the Modern City: The Transformation of New York, New York: W.W Norton + Company.
Caro, R. 1974. The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the fall of New York, New York, Alfred A Knopf.
Jacobs, J. 1961. The Death and Life of Great American Cities, New York, The Modern Library.
Bridge, G., & Watson, S. (2010). The Blackwell city reader. Chichester, West Sussex, U.K., Wiley-Blackwell.