Air Pollution and Childrens Health – Literature review Example

Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing

The paper "Air Pollution and Children’ s Health " is a great example of a literature review n environmental studies.   Children are very vulnerable to air pollution as compared to adults. The relationship between pollution and children’ s health has been the subject of a lot of research. There has been a lot of literature on the subject. Schwartz writes that there should be a cause for concern when young children are exposed to air pollution. The vulnerability of children results from the fact that the exposure happens despite the lungs of such children not being fully developed.

Children are therefore at a greater risk than adults when in an environment that has air which is full of pollutants. Children are likely to be outdoors more often and for longer than adults. Being outdoors means that children are in contact with high levels of pollution which emanate from power plants, traffic, and other sources. For a long time, it has been known that air pollution makes minor illnesses worse. However, studies that have been carried out lately show a very worrying trend (Schwartz 2004, pp.

234-250). Seaton examines the relationship between air pollution, more so pollution from traffic which has been seen as increasing infant mortality. Such pollution is also significant in the development of atopy and asthma. Acute bronchitis has also been associated with particles that are found in polluted air (Seaton 2001, pp. 176-178). Children who are afflicted by bronchitis were found to fare much worse in areas where the air was more polluted. In modern times, industrialization has led to increased pollution of air especially where those responsible do not see the need to incur additional costs in minimizing hazardous emissions.

There is a lot of evidence from research that shows that children are particularly amenable to the effects of air pollution. The following essay exams the phenomenon of air pollution and the additional problems that are being experienced by young children at an unprecedented level. The essay, therefore, examines at length the work that has been written on the subject of pollution and negative effects on children. Discussion A lot of literature has been written with regard to the large number of adverse effects that air pollutants have on children's health.

The number of children who die young has increased due to the presence of pollutants in the air (Seaton 2001, pp. 176-178). According to Schwartz, areas, where there are higher levels of pollution, per neonatal mortality rates, have been observed to increase (Schwartz 2004, pp. 234-250). Pollution also leads to a higher rate of deaths for children and for those who have asthma, their situation becomes worse and this is evidence by the fact such children have to visit hospitals very often for emergency attention or even admissions in hospitals.

Children in areas with high levels of pollution have higher incidences with respiratory infections which last longer than usual. The functioning of lungs in children found in areas with high rates of pollution is negatively affected to a large extent. Writers have also examined effects that arise as a consequence of air pollution is markedly higher incidents of sickness and such children being absent from kindergartens. This results partly from lead which is inhaled from exhaust emanating from automobile exhaust. Uncontrolled burning of coal is a cause for very high levels of pollution especially in areas that are enclosed.

Developing countries have lower levels of indoor pollution. However, the countries that are developing are seeing an increase in the amount of traffic and hence an increase in the levels of poisonous gas that is released.

References

Bates, DV 1995, 'The effects of air pollution on children’ Environ. Health Perspective. Vol.103, no. 6, pp. 49-53.

Kim, JJ 2004, 'Ambient air pollution: health hazards to children', American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Environmental Health.

McConnell, R et. Al 1999, ‘Air pollution and bronchitic symptoms in Southern California children with asthma.' Environ Health Perspect, vol.107, no.9, pp 757-760.

Nicolai, T 1999, Monaldi Archives for chest disease. The Lancet, vol.54, no.6, pp, 475-8.

'Ostro, BD et. al 2000, Epidemiology of fine particulate air pollution and human health: biological mechanisms and who's at risk? Environ Health Perspect. Vol.108, no.4, pp 713-723.

Pope, CA 1995, Health effects of particulate air pollution: time for reassessment? Journal of allergy and clinical immunology vol.103, no.5, pp. 472-480.

Ribeiro, H & Cardoso, M 2003, Air pollution and children's health in Sao Paulo. (1986-1998). Journal of Social Science & Medicine, vol 57.

Schwartz, J 2004, ‘Air Pollution and Children's Health’, American Academy of Pediatrics.

Seaton, A MD, 2001, 'Particulate air pollution and acute health effects,' The Lancet, vol 345, no 8943, pp. 176-178.

Trasande, L et. al 2005, 'The role of air pollution in asthma and other pediatric morbidities' Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 2005 vo. 115 No. 4 pp. 689-699.

Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
Contact Us