# The Hall Effect: Measurement and Instrumentation – Lab Report Example

MEASUREMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION By: Measurement and Instrumentation Theory The Hall Effect is the creation of a voltage difference an electric conductor placed perpendicular to the direction of magnetic field and electric current as shown below. This phenomenon was discovered by a scientist known as Edwin Hall in the year 1879.

The voltage, U Hall is known as Hall voltage. The Hall coefficient is the ratio of the electric field induced to the product of the applied magnetic field and the current density. The voltage induced depends on the conductor.
The working principle of the
The Hall Effect sensors based on the principle of Hall Effect. It is a transducer that changes its output voltage in relation to the magnetic field. The sensors are used in speed detection, current sensing, and proximity switching applications. In their simplest form, the sensors operate as an analog transducer directly returning voltage. The distance of the sensor from the hall plate can be calculated with a known value of the magnetic field. The position of the magnet from the sensor can be easily determined using a series of sensors.
Objective
The main objective this experiment is to establish the relationship between the output voltage and the distance between the plate and the sensor.
Requirements for the Experiment
1. Digital Multimeter
2. Hall Effect Sensor Rig
3. Signal Processing Box
Procedure
1. Arrange the apparatus as shown in figure 1 below.
Figure 1: Equipment arrangement
2. Set the signal processing box as shown in figure 2 below.
3. Connect the output leads to the digital multimeter as shown in figure 3.
4. Move the slider to the right of the board and then towards the sensor at the intervals shown in figure 4 and record the output voltage.
Figure 4: The slider
5. Repeat the procedures above two times.
6. Produce a graph of voltage against distance.
Result and discussion
Table 1 shows the result obtained during the two tests..
Distance (mm)
Output Voltage I (V)
Output Voltage II (V)
0
2.1
2.132
20
0.3787
0.3822
40
0.2652
0.2678
60
0.2458
0.245
80
0.2395
0.2396
100
0.2364
0.2367
120
0.2352
0.2356
140
0.2343
0.2347
160
0.2339
0.241
Table 1: The relationship between the output voltage and the slider distance.
The figures 5 and 6 show the relationship between the output voltage and the slider distance for test one and two respectively.
Figure 5: Voltage against slider distance for test one
Figure 6: Voltage against slider distance for test two
As shown in both the tests, the output voltage decreases with increase in slider distance. There is a rapid decrease in voltage between the zero mm go about 20mm. From 20 mm onwards, the there is a slow decrease in voltage with increase in distance. There is an output voltage even when the magnet is out of range of the sensor. This voltage is known as a null offset voltage. It is due to mismatch of the internal connection to the Hall element. The voltage can be accounted for by proper calibration.
References List
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