# Orifice and Free Jet Flows – Lab Report Example

The paper "Orifice and Free Jet Flows" is a great example of a lab report on physics. The objective of carrying out the orifice discharge experiment was to find out the velocity and contraction coefficients. Graphs will be drawn and calculations on the discharge coefficient determined. Introduction An orifice is an opening that is circular at the base or side of the reservoir. Fluid discharges in the form of a jet are released to the atmosphere. The volumetric flow rates are discharged through an orifice and depend upon the level of the orifice upon the head of the fluid.

Therefore, the volume rate of flow can be used as a mean measuring flow rate. The term small orifice is obtained from an orifice with vertical dimensions and is small than the head producing the flow. The objective of the experimental exercise is to determine the coefficients of contraction Cc, coefficient of discharge Cd, and coefficient of velocity Cv of two distinct small sharp-edged orifices which are 3mm and 6mm in diameters. The three coefficients help to understand the friction on water flow clearly. Experimental Procedure The experiment is carried out as per the lab instructions notes F1-17.

The apparatus consists of equipment such as manometer, stopwatch, water, control panel, adjustable panel, hydraulic bench, pressure transmitter, pump, adjustable head tank with a jet trajectory tracer, and orifice units of different 3mm and 6mm diameters. The orifices are placed at the bottom of the reservoir while the adjustable head tank contains water from a hydraulic work surface. The adjustable overflow maintains the head at a constant level which is indicated by a level scale. A jet trajectory tracing equipment enables the path which the jet follows to be measured. Experiment Performed The experiment involved the determination of coefficients for the two small orifices: 3mm and 6mm.

The experiment procedures included several stages. The experiment was carried out as follow: The General Start-up Procedures First, the flow-through either the 3mm or 6mm orifice unit was ascertained to be on top of the hydraulic table. Using an adjustable foot, the unit was leveled and water-filled into the tank until completely full. A flexible hose was connected to the hydraulic bench directing the water supply to the hydraulic bench.

Secondly, the orifice was installed on the cylindrical tank. The control valve controlling the bench flow was then closed. Lastly, the flow control valve was slowly unlocked to allow water to fill the cylindrical tank as well as expel the air. Flow-through Orifice The water was allowed into the cylindrical tank through adjusting the flow. By adjusting the inlet pipe, the level of the diffuser was elevated until it was just below the water level. Afterward, the tube water level, Ho, was recorded. The water level, Hc, that is the distance between the tube and the pilot tube, was recorded after achieving the equilibrium.

The diameter of the existing water jet was assessed using a wire by moving it through the jet (Azzopardi, 2004). Contraction diameter was determined using the distance covered by the wire. Time for the tank to fill with water from 10litres to 20litres was recorded.