Two Oxidation States of Vanadium – Lab Report Example

Lab Report: Two Oxidation s Of Vanadium Introduction Vanadium is mostly used to make alloys for tools, construction elements and engine parts. Amixture of vanadium and gallium can be used to produce superconductive magnets. In industry, vanadium pentoxide is used for ceramics and catalysts. Some vanadium compounds are used to dye fabrics [3].
There is no ore from which vanadium can be recovered. It is a trace element found in rock materials and a mining by product. Some sources are coal, crude oil and tar sands. In the United States, for example, vanadium resources are generally associated with uranium ores in sandstone. Often the source of vanadium is the cheaper ferrovanadium from countries such as South Africa, China, Canada, etc. South Africa is also a major supplier of vanadium pentoxide [2].
Vanadium is a rare element belonging to the group of transition metals which means that the valence electrons are in more than one shell. As a result, there are several common oxidation states: +2, +3, +4, and +5 [1]. The fact that these are readily interconverted led to the invention of the Vanadium Redox Battery which is used for the storage of solar and wind energy [4].
The maximum work obtainable from a reaction is called the Gibbs free energy (∆G ) and is expressed by the following formula:
Maximum work = ∆G = -nFE0
In this formula ∆G is the Gibbs Free Energy, n is the amount of electrons exchanged in the reaction, F is the Faraday constant and E0 is the standard potential. The Gibbs free energy of a reaction determines the nature of this reaction, whether it is spontaneous (∆G0 (non-spontaneous reaction)
This was proven by the experiment.
We have furthermore proven that the oxidation stages of vanadium are readily interconverted. This phenomenon resulted in the invention of the VRB.
Bibliography
1. Holleman, A. F., Wiberg, E., & Wiberg, N. (1985). Vanadium (in German). Lehrbuch der Anorganischen Chemie , 1071-1075. Walter de Gruyter.
2. Lide, D. R. (2004). vanadium. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics , 4 34. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
3. Moskalyk, R., & Alfantazi, A. (kein Datum). Processing of vanadium: a review. Minerals Engineering 16 (9 September 2003) , 793-805.
4. Skyllas-Kazacos, M., Rychcik, M., Robins, R., Fane, A., & Green, M. (1986). New all-vanadium redox cell. J. Electrochem. Society 133 , 1057-1058.