Embryonic Development – Lab Report Example
LAR Introduction: For my Lab, I chose embryonic developmentbecause the applications of studying human embryo development is varied and since one of my career options is to deal in something similar, doing this lab work helped my concepts become stronger.
1A. the mitotic stages are:
A- Yolk sac
C-Endoderm- Epithelial and glandular tissue.
D- Mesoderm- Gives rise to connective and muscle tissue.
E- Ectoderm- Gives rise to nervous and epidermis tissue.
MODEL A- placenta. It helps to absorb food matter and excrete fecal matter.
Model b: foetus
Extra embryonic memebranes- A: Yolk sac
Embryonic stages- A. Fertilization.
B. 2-cell zygote.
C. 4 cell zygote.
D. 8-cell zygote.
C. WALL MOUNT:A- ovulated oocyte
F- fetal membranes
L- uterine tube
2. Obgyn Report. A 35 years old women whose report read G4P2 and has just delivered a baby girl means that she was pregnant 4 times out of which 2 babies were viably delivered. After this her records should be G4P3.
The apgar total of the newly born baby is 6. A premature fetus will have a lower Apgar score than a full term baby because all the systems in the body have not matured fully to indicate a healthy growth.
Since the premature baby’s apgar total is 6 will need some neonatal intensive care because the baby has problems with breathing and her heart rate is slow the nurse may even rub her chest to increases flow of blood.
Gestation- carrying of a child in the uterus.
Teratology- study of abnormal fetus
Menarche- beginning of menstruation.
Neo-natal- newly born baby.
Pediatric- Branch of science that deals with infants and children.
1. A gamete is a functional reproductive cell with haploid chromosomes which is capable of fusing with another gamete to form a zygote. Sperm cells are produced in the testes while egg cell is produced in the ovaries.
2. Meiosis Mitosis
a) Occurs at the time of gamete Occurs in somatic cells of the body.
b) Includes two successive divisions The whole process is completed in one
taking place one after the other. sequence.
3. Fertilization is the process of union of the egg cell and the sperm.
4. HCG is a Human Chorionic Gonadotropin which is produced by the placenta during pregnancy. It prevents menstruations and ovulation during pregnancy and thus helps to maintain it.
5. The names of the extra embryonic membranes are- allantois, chorion, amnion and yolk sac. Allantois helps in respiration, nutrition and excretion. Chorion protects the embryo, provides nourishment and removes waste matter. Amnion contains amniotic fluid which provides the embryo with protection against mechanical shock. Yolk sac is a site of blood cell formation but it shrinks after the liver is formed.
6. Gastrulation is the process of formation of gastrula from the blastula. It involves differentiation and movement of blastocyst cells from their original place to their final positions.
7. The three embryonic germ layers are ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. Ectoderm gives rise to epidermis and nervous tissues. Mesoderm gives rise to skin dermis, connective and muscle tissue. Endoderm gives rise to epithelial and glandular tissue.
8. The carrying of the developing fetus in the female uterus in viviparous animals is known as gestation. For human the gestation period is about 40 weeks.
9. The period of the embryo is from fertilization up to 8 weeks after fertilization. The period of the fetus is between 8 weeks up to the birth. During the embryonic period the tissue and organs start forming the body systems. During the fetal period all the different organs in the body are formed.
10. There are primarily 3 labor stages. The Dilation stage of labor is the stage where the cervix starts to dilate and often accompanied by mild contractions. The second stage/ Delivery starts with the cervix fully dilated and ends with the birth of the baby. During the second stage heavy contractions help push the baby. The third stage/ placental stage is where the placenta is expelled from the uterus just after the baby’s birth.
11. The fetal circulatory bypasses are-
Shunts- bypass liver and lungs.
Foramen ovale and Ductus Arteriosus- bypasses heart
Ductus venosus- bypasses liver.
12. In the adults the closed fetal bypasses form the following structures:
Foramen Ovale- Fossa Ovalis
Ductus arteriosus- Ligamentum arteriosum.
Ductus venosus- Round ligament of liver.