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The paper “ Why Are Computational Requirements for the Flow Representation So Considerable? ” is a comprehensive example of a lab report on physics. The main aim of the paper is to be able to implement CFD by analyzing the effects of changes in pressure, temperature changes, velocity, and Mach number. The design of s-pipe requires an assessment of pressure, temperature changes, velocity, and Mach number on the individual pipes as well as on the pipeline bundle as a single object. Direct data related to such pipeline configurations are scarce; therefore, the pipeline is sometimes simplified to allow easier implementation.

However, the validity of the equivalent diameter design concept has not been adequately investigated. AssumptionsThe following are the assumption were considered in the analysis Two different fluids with different densities and viscosities in the case were oil and water. The Mach number range is from 0.048753 to 0.54885 The velocity will be varied between 72 m/s and 186m/s, The two different inlet Pressure conditions considered in the case were 3366.02 and 7903.35Pa Two different Reynolds numbers Two different Inlet Mach numbers were 0.21 and 0.83 Mesh and boundary conditionsThe mesh that BoundaryThe initial conditions will be Pressure 7903.35pa and boundary condition 3066.82PaVelocity will be 72,0,0Mach number 0.21 The figure above shows that the mesh geometry of the pipe pressure is focused on the front part.

This means other parts of the pipe are not under extensive pressure as the front. Validation of the numerical model An s-pipe of Mach number 0.21 will be simulated to validate the numerical model of this study. At the same time, a rectangle of 28 by 16 will be used that is divided by 24458 elements. There have been accurate analyses meant to figure out very well the structure of a bearing to provide frequencies that are appropriate for the pipe.

This is meant to reduce the various problems that do arise from the cylinders especially if they have been in use for a long time. During the calculation of the various frequencies used in the bearings, the calculations do require one to know some basic information that is typically known. For example, the typical information includes the Mach number, pressure ranges temperature ranges, and velocity. Pressure variationThe output below shows the pressure variation.

From the output, it can be noted there is will be an increase in pressure with the increasing distance past S-shape of the pipe up exit point. At entry point marks the start of a decrease in pressure towards the end of s-shape. This movement will then result in a vortex formation in the pipe as can be seen from the diagram. The pressure will be highest at the exit point of the pipe. It was found from the graph that stagnation pressure decreases as the distance between the entry and the s-shape decreases, while past the shape pressure increases. The two figures above show that the level of pressure varies as distance changes.

The pressure range is from 0.85kPa to 0.92kPa for validated values. When there is a restriction to the flow of fluid, in the form of an orifice plate meter inserted at a particular cross-section of the flow, this reduction of area affects the fluid flow parameters in a significant manner. In a pipe having a fluid flow, the portion near the boundary surface is affected since all fluids are practically not in viscid and hence the solid surface imparts a no-slip condition which in turn retards the smooth fluid flow giving rise to a slower moving boundary layer.

When flow enters a duct, a boundary layer is almost immediately formed circumferentially around the inner side of the duct wall. The core of the flow which is in viscid in relation to the walls is restricted from freely moving due to the growth of a viscous boundary layer.

References

McGraw-Hill Companies. (2005). Boundary-layer flow. McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Physics (5th ed.). The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Spink, L. K. (1967). Principles and Practice of Flow-meter Engineering. The Foxboro Company. Foxboro, MA.

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