Nationalism in the Third World2007 Taking lead from the Cold War, the U. S linked its economic relationships with other countries along with arms. The US – NATO, in addition to the US-Japan Defense Deal, guaranteed loyalty to the US political leadership on all key issues in the world. In any case, countries like China (1945-48), Vietnam, Algeria, Hungary (1956), Cuba, southern Africa in the Third World that were excluded from these gains resented this, vigorously at times, causing problems to the US-led world order and definitely to the Soviet Union, with the exception of the Vietnam war, that bled the United States in terms of money, life and morale of the nation.
Those who were not part of the hegemonies of the US-led new world order were fueled by the idea of the 1968 world revolution, the unrest that rocked the world. The cultural revolution in China in 1966 and "socialism with a human face" in Czechoslovakia in 1968 and the uprisings in Mexico, Senegal, Tunisia, India and many other countries of the Third World defended their countries against U. S. domination just as they were up against Soviet connivance theme (Wallerstein). Nationalist movements emerged between 1945 - 1970's in countries comprising to what was known as the Third World, that is a group of underdeveloped, once colonized regions branded as weak or new and still struggling to become equal to the First World.
The latter comprised the modern countries, typically in Western/ Central Europe, the US and Canada, which took control over the remaining parts of the world using their early manufacturing power. The Third World countries were mostly in the Southern hemisphere - in Latin America, Africa and Asian.
Over 60 new countries appeared on the world stage in Africa, Asia, the Pacific, and the Near East while in Asia, independence of India from the British colony was achieved in 1947, just as Burma finished British regime in 1948. The British clung firmly on Indochina while the French fought an expensive war with the Vietnamese freedom fighters, reaching to a deadly end as late as 1975. Laos and Cambodia obtained freedom after 1954 while the Netherlands handed over rule of the Dutch East Indies/Indonesia not before 1949.
The regions that created Malaysia attained independence in 1957. The Philippines became a free state by 1946. Most of Pacific Island started getting trust or commonwealth standing previous colonial rulers acting as protectorate or absolutely free independence by 1970. The regions in South Asia did not become free before 1940.In Africa, one of the last regions to be taken over by western powers, the process started seriously after 1957, Ghana coming first as the African state to end European colonial regime, with another 40 new countries trailing behind it over the last quarter of a century.
Every story of independence, certainly, was exclusive in its own way meriting separate treatment, yet for lack of space we can only talk about decolonization broadly and accepting that while some previous colonies attained freedom with only a limited killing and violence, for example Ghana and India, there were others who endured an arduous, atrocious war with a colonial power frantically trying to keep hold of its colonies – like the hideous Algerian war of independence that demanded the lives of hundreds of thousands of on both sides previous to French loss in 1962.
Vietnam, the Belgian Congo, Angola were other examples of such lingeringly hard and awfully harsh fights. Even after its conquering days during1945 – 1970, some regions still lingered under colonial rule until lately, the Pacific islands and Caribbean terrain that attaining only quasi-independence ( Decolonization, hcc. hawaii. edu).